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Assess Albert Speer#8217;s contribution to the Nazi war effort Essay. Forms! Albert Speer’s contribution to the Nazi war effort started well before the declaration of Essay about The Dangers of Marijuana war. His work for plato's, the Nazi regime aided Adolf Hitler in third crusade included except, lifting the plato's forms, morale of the German people and consolidating Nazi power which was determined to sonnet 81, engage in plato's, armed conflict. Speer was an epic examples, accomplished architect and a highly efficient organiser. Hitler addressed Berlin#8217;s university students at a Berlin rally in 1931, and plato's Speer who was in the audience was so overwhelmed by what he heard that he joined the Nazi party and what is the committed himself to plato's forms, his work. What Perspective! By 1932 he was working independently as an architect and used his party contacts to forms, gain him more work. In 1933, Goebbels asked Speer to sonnet 81, renovate the Propaganda Ministry. His next project proved to be even more successful planning and organising massive banners, swastikas and searchlights for the celebration of the forms, Day of National Labour on the Tempelhof Field in Berlin on May 1st 1933.
Goebbels was so impressed that he commissioned Speer to design the what cognitive, surround of the Nuremberg Rally later that year. Soon he was renovating Nazi Party offices and through his hard work and forms enthusiasm he mad a name for participants third included, himself amongst the forms, Nazi leadership. With the death of Hitler#8217;s architect Troost, Hitler co-opted Speer as his personal architectural advisor. The Roses England! They became personal friends and Speer moved his family to plato's forms, be near Hitler’s mountain lodge. Essay About The Dangers And Consequences Of Marijuana Abuse! Speer was commissioned to plato's forms, rebuild the pricing, Nuremberg Party Rally grounds and due to his success in plato's, propaganda architecture Hitler appointed him in epic simile examples, 1938 as General Building Inspector for forms, the National Capital. Speer placed his department at the disposal of the Wehrmacht. Among his innovations were quick-reaction squads who construct roads and cleared away debris. Participants In The Third Included Except! Before long, these units would be used to clear bomb sites. As the forms, war progressed, he failed to convince Hitler of the need to suspend peacetime construction projects, so he continued to work on the Berlin and Nuremburg plans. Speer also oversaw the construction of buildings for The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana, the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, and plato's developed a considerable organization to deal with this work.
Speer continued with his duties designing and constructing for what perspective, the Reich up until 1942. In this period, his ideas and plans were used by plato's Hitler to show the German population how great the nation could be. That year he was appointed Reich Minister for third crusade included the following, Armaments Munitions as a reward for his faithful and plato's unswerving loyalty to Nazi Party and Hitler. Hitler also believed that due to his close relationship to Speer and Speer’s loyalty, he could control arm’s production. Speer’s effect was immediate. In the first six months, he increased production of guns by 27%, tanks by 25% and ammunition by Essay about Abuse 97%. By the plato's, end of 1944, production had increased by 300%. This included a rise in the construction of aircraft from 9500 in 1941, to 34300 by 1944.
All this was done with only a 30% increase in The Dangers, the workforce. Forms! Speer convinced Hitler that many workers should be diverted from producing consumer items for armaments production. He also used foreign workers and prisoners to work as forced labour. About And Consequences! When German war production was at its peak in plato's, late September 1944, there were over seven million foreign labourers and 400,000 prisoners of war working as slave labourers. This was approximately 20% of the total workforce. Speer was so efficient with his duties, that many historians credit him with prolonging the war for a further twelve months. Speer was a great believer in is the, the V1 V2 Rocket programs to plato's, swing the The Dangers and Consequences, tide of the war in plato's forms, Germany’s favour. Nike Csr! He claimed that the inability of forms senior Nazi figures to sonnet 81, fully comprehend rocket technology led to forms, a delay in overcoming initial problems with the war of the roses england, V2. He believed that the forms, V2 would have been operational far sooner if the project had received greater backing. General Eisenhower claimed after the war that if the V Weapon program had been in war of england, place in earl 1944, the D-Day landing may have been impossible.
In early 1944, Speer was admitted to a clinic as a result of health problems. During the plato's, period of school uniforms ky his recovery, he had time to reflect and in doing so, realised his growing disenchantment with Hitler and plato's forms the Nazi regime. In November 1944 in a private conversation with Joseph Goebbels he indicated his belief that a German victory was not possible. Nike Csr! The war was going so poorly for forms, Germany that even Speer’s talent and efficiency drives were unable to sonnet 81, reverse the oncoming defeat. By the forms, middle of the year, he had disobeyed Hitler’s orders to epic simile examples, put a halt of producing aircraft and boost anti-aircraft production. He also refused to plato's, engage in Hitler’s ‘Scorched Earth’ policy which meant that all infrastructure, power supplies, records documents and epic food be destroyed before it could fall into the hands of the advancing Allied forces. Forms! He did this because he had realised that such an action would devastate any possible chance of recovery for the German people after the war had been lost. It is cognitive, evident that Albert Speer had an forms, overwhelming effect on the Nazi war effort.
His ability to organise and nike csr plan projects from architecture, which would lift the plato's forms, peoples morale, to the production of epic examples arms which enabled the German armed forces to plato's forms, continue the sonnet 81, fight against forms, the allies for so long. Without a person of nike csr his ability, the German war machine and the Nazi government would have fallen far earlier. Plato's Forms! University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 11 November 2016. Participants Crusade Included The Following Except! Let us write you a custom essay sample on forms Assess Albert Speer#8217;s contribution to the Nazi war effort. for epic simile, only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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nsf cover letter NSF 16-1 January 25, 2016. Chapter II - Proposal Preparation Instructions. Each proposing organization that is new to NSF or has not had an active NSF assistance award within the plato's previous five years should be prepared to submit basic organization and perspective, management information and plato's forms, certifications, when requested, to nike csr, the applicable award-making division within the plato's Office of Budget, Finance Award Management (BFA). The requisite information is described in the NSF Prospective New Awardee Guide.
The information contained in this Guide will assist the organization in preparing documents which NSF requires to conduct administrative and financial reviews of the war of the roses england organization. Plato's Forms? This Guide also serves as a means of highlighting the accountability requirements associated with Federal awards. To facilitate proposal preparation, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding proposal preparation and submission are available on the NSF website. 8. Proposers should also be aware of core strategies that are essential to the fulfillment of NSF’s mission, as articulated in Investing in Science, Engineering, and Education for Essay and Consequences, the Nation’s Future: NSF Strategic Plan, 2014-2018 . These strategies are integrated in plato's, the program planning and implementation process, of which proposal review is one part. NSF’s mission is particularly well-implemented through the integration of research and education and broadening participation in pricing, NSF programs, projects, and activities. One of the plato's strategic objectives in nike csr, support of forms NSF’s mission is to foster integration of research and penetration, education through the programs, projects, and plato's forms, activities it supports at NSF awardee organizations. These organizations recruit, train, and prepare a diverse science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce to advance the war of england frontiers of science and participate in the US technology-based economy. NSF’s contribution to the national innovation ecosystem is to plato's, provide cutting-edge research under the guidance of the Nation’s most creative scientists and engineers. NSF also supports development of a strong STEM workforce by investing in building the knowledge that informs improvements in STEM teaching and nike csr, learning. NSF’s mission calls for the broadening of forms opportunities and expanding participation of groups, organizations, and geographic regions that are underrepresented in STEM disciplines, which is essential to the health and vitality of penetration science and engineering.
NSF is committed to this principle of diversity and deems it central to the programs, projects, and activities it considers and supports. A. Conformance with Instructions for Proposal Preparation. It is important that all proposals conform to forms, the instructions provided in the GPG or NSF Grants.gov Application Guide. Conformance is required and will be strictly enforced unless an authorization to deviate from standard proposal preparation requirements has been approved. NSF will not accept or will return without review proposals that are not consistent with these instructions. See GPG Chapter IV.B for additional information. Nike Csr? NSF authorization to forms, deviate from these instructions must be received prior to proposal submission. Deviations may be authorized in one of two ways: 1. through specification of different requirements in an NSF program solicitation; or. 2. by the written approval of the cognizant NSF Assistant Director/Office Head or designee.
These approvals to deviate from NSF proposal preparation instructions may cover a particular program or programs or, in rare instances, an individual deviation for a particular proposal. Proposers may deviate from these instructions only to the extent authorized. Sonnet 81? Proposals must include an authorization to deviate from standard NSF proposal preparation instructions in one of the following ways, as appropriate: (a) by identifying the solicitation number that authorized the deviation in the appropriate block on the Cover Sheet; or (b) for individual deviations, by identifying the name, date and title of the NSF official authorizing the deviation. B. Plato's? Format of the Proposal. Prior to submission, it is strongly recommended that proposers conduct an administrative review to ensure that proposals comply with the proposal preparation guidelines established in the GPG or the NSF Grants.gov Application Guide. The Proposal Preparation Checklist (GPG Exhibit II-1) may be used to assist in this review. The checklist is not intended to be an pricing all-inclusive repetition of the plato's required proposal contents and associated proposal preparation guidelines.
It is, however, meant to highlight certain critical items so they will not be overlooked when the cognitive proposal is prepared. Upon entering the proposal preparation module, the PI will be prompted to select information describing the nature and plato's forms, type of proposal being developed. A collaborative proposal from one organization (see GPG Chapter II.D.5.a); A collaborative proposal from nike csr, multiple organizations (see GPG Chapter II.D.5.b); or. The type of proposal being developed: Facility/Center (see relevant funding opportunity); or. The requested proposal information noted above will be used to plato's, determine the applicable proposal preparation business rules that must be followed. Proposers are strongly advised to review the applicable sections of the GPG pertinent to the type of proposal being developed PRIOR to submission.
1. Proposal Pagination Instructions. Proposers are advised that FastLane does not automatically paginate a proposal. Sonnet 81? Each section of the plato's forms proposal that is uploaded as a file should be individually paginated prior to being uploaded to pricing penetration, the electronic system. 2. Proposal Margin and plato's, Spacing Requirements. The proposal must conform to the following requirements: a. Use one of the following typefaces identified below: Arial 9 , Courier New, or Palatino Linotype at a font size of 10 points or larger; Times New Roman at a font size of sonnet 81 11 points or larger; or Computer Modern family of plato's fonts at a font size of 11 points or larger.
A font size of Essay The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse less than 10 points may be used for mathematical formulas or equations, figures, table or diagram captions and when using a Symbol font to insert Greek letters or special characters. PIs are cautioned, however, that the plato's text must still be readable. b. No more than six lines of text within a vertical space of one inch. c. Margins, in all directions, must be at least an inch. These requirements apply to all uploaded sections of a proposal, including supplementary documentation. 3. Page Formatting. Proposers are strongly encouraged to Essay and Consequences Abuse, use only a standard, single-column format for the text. The guidelines specified above establish the minimum type size requirements; however, PIs are advised that readability is of paramount importance and should take precedence in selection of an appropriate font for use in the proposal. Small type size makes it difficult for reviewers to read the proposal; consequently, the use of small type not in compliance with the above guidelines may be grounds for plato's, NSF to pricing penetration, return the proposal without review. Adherence to plato's, type size and line spacing requirements also is necessary to ensure that no proposer will have an war of england unfair advantage, by forms, using smaller type or line spacing to provide more text in the proposal.
C. Proposal Contents. 1. Single-Copy Documents. Certain categories of sonnet 81 information that are submitted in conjunction with a proposal are for NSF Use Only. As such, the information is not provided to plato's forms, reviewers for use in the review of the proposal. With the exception of proposal certifications (which are submitted via the nike csr Authorized Organizational Representative function 10 ), these documents should be submitted via the Proposal Preparation Module.
A summary of each of these categories follows: a. Plato's Forms? Authorization to about The Dangers of Marijuana, Deviate from NSF Proposal Preparation Requirements (if applicable) Instructions for obtaining authorization to plato's forms, deviate from NSF proposal preparation instructions are provided in GPG Chapter II.A. b. List of Suggested Reviewers or Reviewers Not to Include (optional) Proposers may include a list of the roses england suggested reviewers (including email address and institutional affiliation) who they believe are especially well qualified to review the proposal. Proposers also may designate persons they would prefer not review the proposal, indicating why.
These suggestions are optional. Forms? GPG Exhibit II-2 contains information on conflicts of interest that may be useful in preparation of this list. The cognizant Program Officer handling the proposal considers the nike csr suggestions and forms, may contact the proposer for further information. The decision whether or not to use the nike csr suggestions, however, remains with the Program Officer. c. Proprietary or Privileged Information (if applicable) Instructions for forms, submission of third included proprietary or privileged information are provided in GPG Chapter I.D.3. d. Proposal Certifications. With the exception of the Disclosure of plato's forms Lobbying Activities (SF LLL) identified below, the procedures for submission of the proposal certifications differ from those used with other single-copy documents. The AOR must use the Authorized Organizational Representative function in FastLane to sign and submit the Essay about The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse proposal, including the proposal certifications.
It is the proposing organization's responsibility to assure that only forms, properly authorized individuals perform this function. 11. The required proposal certifications are as follows: Certification for is the, Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) or Individual Proposer: The AOR is required to complete certifications regarding the accuracy and completeness of statements contained in plato's forms, the proposal, as well as to what is the cognitive, certify that the plato's forms organization (or individual) agrees to accept the obligation to Essay The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse, comply with award terms and conditions. Certification Regarding Conflict of Interest: The AOR is required to plato's, complete certifications stating that the organization has implemented and sonnet 81, is enforcing a written policy on conflicts of interest (COI), consistent with the provisions of AAG Chapter IV.A: that, to the best of his/her knowledge, all financial disclosures required by the conflict of plato's interest policy were made; and that conflicts of interest, if any, were, or prior to the organization’s expenditure of any funds under the award, will be, satisfactorily managed, reduced or eliminated in is the cognitive, accordance with the organization’s conflict of interest policy. Forms? Conflicts that cannot be satisfactorily managed, reduced or eliminated, and sonnet 81, research that proceeds without the imposition of conditions or restrictions when a conflict of interest exists, must be disclosed to NSF via use of NSF’s electronic systems.
Drug-Free Workplace: The AOR is required to complete a certification regarding the Drug-Free Workplace Act. See GPG Exhibit II-2 for the full text of the Drug-Free Workplace Certification. Debarment and Suspension: The AOR is required to complete a certification regarding Debarment and Suspension. See GPG Exhibit II-3 for plato's forms, the full text of the Debarment and Suspension Certification. Certification Regarding Lobbying: When the proposal exceeds $100,000, the AOR is required to nike csr, complete a certification regarding lobbying restrictions. The Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans and Cooperative Agreements is included in full text on the FastLane submission screen as well as in GPG Exhibit II-5. Forms? The box for Disclosure of Lobbying Activities must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet only if, pursuant to paragraph 2 of the certification, submission of the SF LLL is required.
12. Certification Regarding Nondiscrimination: The AOR is war of required to complete a certification regarding compliance with NSF nondiscrimination regulations and forms, policies. See GPG Exhibit II-5 for the full text of the Nondiscrimination Certification. This certification sets forth the nondiscrimination obligations with which all grantees must comply. These obligations also apply to subrecipients or contractors under the award. The proposer, therefore, shall obtain the pricing penetration NSF Nondiscrimination Certification from each organization that applies to be, or serves as a subrecipient or contractor under the plato's award (for other than the provision of commercially available supplies, materials, equipment or general support services) prior to entering into the subaward or contract arrangement. Certification Regarding Flood Hazard Insurance: Two sections of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (42 USC § 4012a and § 4106) bar Federal agencies from giving financial assistance for acquisition or construction purposes in any area identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as having special flood hazards unless the: (1) community in sonnet 81, which that area is located participates in the national flood insurance program; and. (2) building (and any related equipment) is covered by adequate flood insurance. By signing the proposal certification pages, AORs for prospective grantees located in plato's forms, FEMA-designated special flood hazard areas are certifying that adequate flood insurance has been or will be obtained in the following situations: (1) for NSF grants for the construction of a building or facility, regardless of the dollar amount of the grant; and. (2) for other NSF grants when more than $25,000 has been budgeted in the proposal for repair, alteration or improvement (construction) of a building or facility. Prospective grantees should contact their local government or a federally-insured financial institution to determine what areas are identified as having special flood hazards and the availability of flood insurance in sonnet 81, their community.
Certification Regarding Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) 13 : The AOR is forms required to complete a certification that the institution has a plan to provide appropriate training and sonnet 81, oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers who will be supported by NSF to conduct research. Additional information on plato's, NSF’s RCR policy is available in the AAG Chapter IV.B. While training plans are not required to be included in the roses england, proposals submitted to NSF, institutions are advised that they are subject to review upon plato's forms request. Certification Regarding Organizational Support : The AOR is required to complete a certification that there is organizational support for nike csr, the proposal as required by Section 526 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 . This support extends to the portion of the proposal developed to forms, satisfy the broader impacts review criterion as well as the intellectual merit review criterion, and any additional review criteria specified in the solicitation. Organizational support will be made available, as described in the proposal, in order to address the broader impacts and intellectual merit activities to be undertaken. Certification Regarding Federal Tax Obligations : When the proposal exceeds $5,000,000, the AOR is required to complete a certification regarding Federal tax obligations. By signing the certification pages, the the roses england AOR certifies that, to the best of his/her knowledge and belief, the proposing organization: (1) has filed all Federal tax returns required during the three years preceding this certification; (2) has not been convicted of a criminal offense under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and. (3) has not, more than 90 days prior to this certification, been notified of any unpaid Federal tax assessment for which the plato's liability remains unsatisfied, unless the assessment is the subject of an installment agreement or offer in compromise that has been approved by the Internal Revenue Service and is not in default, or the assessment is the subject of a non-frivolous administrative or judicial proceeding.
Certification Regarding Unpaid Federal Tax Liability : If the proposer is a corporation, the AOR (or equivalent) is war of required to complete a certification that the corporation has no unpaid Federal tax liability that has been assessed, for forms, which all judicial and administrative remedies have been exhausted or lapsed, and that is not being paid in a timely manner pursuant to an agreement with the nike csr authority responsible for plato's forms, collecting the tax liability. Certification Regarding Criminal Convictions : If the proposer is The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse a corporation, the AOR (or equivalent) is required to complete a certification that the corporation has not been convicted of a felony criminal violation under any Federal law within the 24 months preceding the date on which the certification is signed. Certification Regarding Dual Use Research of Concern : The AOR is required to complete a certification that the organization will be or is in compliance with all aspects of the United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern . e. Collaborators Other Affiliations Information. The following information regarding collaborators and other affiliations must be separately provided for plato's forms, each individual identified as senior project personnel: Collaborators and co-Editors. What Is The Perspective? A list of all persons in alphabetical order (including their current organizational affiliations) who are currently, or who have been collaborators or co-authors with the plato's individual on penetration, a project, book, article, report, abstract or paper during the 48 months preceding the submission of the proposal. Also include those individuals who are currently or have been co-editors of plato's a journal, compendium, or conference proceedings during the nike csr 24 months preceding the forms submission of the proposal. If there are no collaborators or co-editors to report, this should be so indicated. Graduate Advisors and Postdoctoral Sponsors. A list of the names of the individual’s own graduate advisor(s) and principal postdoctoral sponsor(s), and their current organizational affiliations, if known. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate-Scholar Sponsor.
A list of all persons (including their organizational affiliations, if known), with whom the individual has had an association as thesis advisor. Nike Csr? In addition, a list of all persons with whom the individual has had an association within the last five years as a postgraduate-scholar sponsor. The information is used to help identify potential conflicts or bias in the selection of reviewers. See GPG Exhibit II-2 for additional information on potential reviewer conflicts. 2. Sections of the Proposal. The sections described below represent the plato's forms body of is the cognitive perspective a research proposal submitted to NSF. Failure to submit the required sections will result in the proposal not being accepted 14 , or being returned without review. See GPG Chapter IV.B for additional information.
A full research proposal submitted must contain the following sections. Forms? Note that the penetration NSF Grants.gov Application Guide may use different naming conventions, and sections may appear in a different order than in FastLane, however, the content is the plato's same: b. Project Summary. c. Table of Contents. d. Sonnet 81? Project Description. e. References Cited. f. Biographical Sketch(es) g. Budget and Budget Justification. h. Current and plato's, Pending Support. i. Facilities, Equipment and nike csr, Other Resources. j. Plato's? Special Information and Supplementary Documentation. Data Management Plan Postdoctoral Mentoring Plan (if applicable)
Proposal preparation instructions for RAPID, EAGER, Ideas Lab, collaborative, equipment, conference, international travel, center, and major research equipment and facility projects may deviate from the above content requirements. Program solicitations also may deviate from the above content requirements. All proposals to NSF will be reviewed using the two NSB-approved merit review criteria described in greater length in GPG Chapter III. There are four major components of the Cover Sheet. A number of the boxes contained on the Cover Sheet are pre-filled as part of the FastLane login process. The information requested on the Cover Sheet is as follows: (1) Awardee Project/Performance Site Primary Location. The information on the Awardee Organization is pre-filled on the Cover Sheet based on the login information entered. (2) Program Description/Announcement/Solicitation Number. Proposers are required to select the applicable program description, announcement, or solicitation. If the proposal is is the perspective not submitted in response to forms, a specific program description, announcement, or solicitation, proposers should select Grant Proposal Guide.
Proposers are advised to select No Closing Date when the proposal is participants in the included the following except not submitted in response to any relevant NSF funding opportunity (which includes program descriptions, announcements, or solicitations). (3) NSF Unit of Consideration. Proposers must follow instructions for selection of an applicable NSF Division/Office and Program(s) to which the proposal should be directed. (4) Remainder of the Cover Sheet. (a) Title of Proposed Project. The title of the project must be brief, scientifically or technically valid, and suitable for use in the public press. NSF may edit the title of a project prior to making an award. (b) Budget and Duration Information. The proposed duration for which support is requested should be consistent with the nature and complexity of the proposed activity. Plato's? The Foundation encourages proposers to war of the roses england, request funding for durations of three to five years when such durations are necessary for completion of the forms proposed work and war of england, are technically and managerially advantageous.
The requested start date should allow at least six months for plato's, NSF review, processing and decision. The PI should consult his/her organization’s Sponsored Projects Office for penetration, unusual situations (e.g., a long lead time for procurement) that create problems regarding the proposed start date. Specification of a desired start date for the project is important and helpful to NSF staff; however, requests for specific start dates may not be met. (c) PI Information and co-PI Information. Information (including address information) regarding the PI is derived from login information and is not entered when preparing the Cover Sheet. The proposal also may identify up to four additional co-PIs. Each individual's name and plato's forms, either NSF ID or primary registered e-mail address, must be entered in the boxes provided. (d) Previous NSF Award. If the Essay and Consequences of Marijuana proposal is a renewal proposal, or an forms accomplishment-based renewal proposal, the applicable box must be checked.
If yes, the proposer will be requested to select the applicable previous award number. Some NSF program solicitations require submission of both a preliminary and full proposal as part of the proposal process. In such cases, the following instructions apply: (i) During the preliminary proposal stage, the proposing organization should identify the submission as a preliminary proposal by checking the block entitled, Preliminary Proposal on the proposal Cover Sheet; (ii) During the full proposal submission stage, the proposing organization should identify in the block entitled, Show Related Preliminary Proposal Number, the related preliminary proposal number assigned by NSF. (e) Other Federal Agencies. If the proposal is being submitted for Essay about and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse, consideration by another Federal agency, the abbreviated name(s) of the Federal agency(ies) must be identified in the spaces provided. (f) Awardee Organization Information.
The awardee organization name, address, DUNS number and forms, Employer Identification Number/Taxpayer Identification Number are derived from the profile information provided by the organization or pulled by pricing penetration, NSF from the SAM database and are not entered when preparing the plato's forms Cover Sheet. Profit-making organizations must identify their status by penetration, checking the appropriate boxes on the Cover Sheet, using the following guidelines: A small business must be organized for profit, independently owned and operated (not a subsidiary of forms or controlled by another firm), have no more than 500 employees, and war of england, not be dominant in its field. A minority business must be: (i) at least 51 percent owned by one or more minority or disadvantaged individuals or, in the case of a publicly owned business, have at least 51 percent of the voting stock owned by plato's forms, one or more minority or disadvantaged individuals; and (ii) one whose management and daily business operations are controlled by one or more such individuals. A woman-owned business must be at Essay about Abuse least 51 percent owned by a woman or women, who also control and operate it. Forms? Control in this context means exercising the power to make policy decisions. Essay? Operate in plato's forms, this context means being actively involved in the day-to-day management. (g) Project/Performance Site Primary Location. If the project will be performed at the awardee organization, check the designated box.
If the participants crusade the following except project, however, will be performed at a location other than the awardee, provide the following information (where applicable): Organization Name (identify the organization name of the primary site where the forms work will be performed, if different than the awardee); Street; City; State; Country; and 9-digit Zip Code. For projects that support research infrastructure and tools, such as vessels, facilities, and telescopes, the project/performance site should correspond to penetration, the physical location of the forms research asset. For research assets or projects that are geographically distributed, the proposer should report information for the primary site, as defined by the proposer. For example, proposals for the operations and maintenance of research vessels may list the project/performance site as the vessel’s home port. (h) Other Information. Should any of the Essay about The Dangers following items on the proposal Cover Sheet apply to a proposal, the applicable box(es) must be checked. Beginning Investigator (See GPG I.G.2) (Note: this box is applicable only to proposals submitted to forms, the Biological Sciences Directorate.) Disclosure of Lobbying Activities (See GPG II.C.1.e) Proprietary or Privileged Information (See GPG I.D.3 II.C.1.d) Historic Places (See GPG II.C.2.j) Vertebrate Animals 15 (See GPG II.D.7) Human Subjects 16 (See GPG II.D.8) International Activities Country Name(s) (See GPG II.C.2.j) - For each proposal that describes an international activity, proposers should list the primary countries involved. A maximum of five countries may be listed. An international activity is defined as research, training, and/or education carried out in cooperation with foreign counterparts either overseas or in the US using virtual technologies.
Proposers also should enter the country/countries with which project participants will engage and/or travel to what cognitive perspective, attend international conferences. If the specific location of the plato's international conference is not known at the time of the proposal submission, proposers should enter Worldwide. (See GPG II.C.2.j). b. Project Summary. Each proposal must contain a summary of the proposed project not more than one page in length. The Project Summary consists of an overview, a statement on the intellectual merit of the proposed activity, and a statement on the broader impacts of the proposed activity. The overview includes a description of the activity that would result if the proposal were funded and a statement of objectives and methods to be employed.
The statement on about The Dangers of Marijuana, intellectual merit should describe the forms potential of the proposed activity to advance knowledge. The statement on broader impacts should describe the potential of the proposed activity to benefit society and contribute to the achievement of what is the cognitive perspective specific, desired societal outcomes. The Project Summary should be written in the third person, informative to other persons working in the same or related fields, and, insofar as possible, understandable to a scientifically or technically literate lay reader. Plato's? It should not be an abstract of the proposal. The Project Summary may ONLY be uploaded as a Supplementary Document if use of special characters is necessary. Such Project Summaries must be formatted with separate headings for Overview, Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts. Failure to include these headings will result in participants in the third crusade the following, the proposal being returned without review. c. Forms? Table of Contents.
A Table of Contents is automatically generated for the proposal. The proposer cannot edit this form. d. Project Description (including Results from Prior NSF Support) The Project Description should provide a clear statement of the work to be undertaken and must include the objectives for the period of the proposed work and is the, expected significance; the relationship of this work to the present state of knowledge in the field, as well as to work in progress by the PI under other support. The Project Description should outline the general plan of work, including the broad design of activities to be undertaken, and, where appropriate, provide a clear description of experimental methods and procedures.
Proposers should address what they want to plato's forms, do, why they want to do it, how they plan to third crusade the following, do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits could accrue if the project is successful. Plato's Forms? The project activities may be based on previously established and/or innovative methods and approaches, but in either case must be well justified. These issues apply to both the technical aspects of the proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. The Project Description must contain, as a separate section within the narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts . Nike Csr? This section should provide a discussion of the broader impacts of the proposed activities. Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the activities that are directly related to plato's, specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to nike csr, the project. NSF values the advancement of scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to the achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and forms, mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of individuals in society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the US; and enhanced infrastructure for participants in the third included all of the following except, research and education. Plans for data management and sharing of the products of plato's forms research, including preservation, documentation, and sharing of data, samples, physical collections, curriculum materials and other related research and education products should be described in war of the roses, the Special Information and Supplementary Documentation section of the plato's proposal (see GPG Chapter II.C.2.j for additional instructions for preparation of this section). (ii) Page Limitations and about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana, Inclusion of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) within the Project Description.
Brevity will assist reviewers and plato's, Foundation staff in dealing effectively with proposals. Therefore, the participants third crusade included all of except Project Description (including Results from Prior NSF Support, which is limited to five pages) may not exceed 15 pages . Visual materials, including charts, graphs, maps, photographs and other pictorial presentations are included in plato's forms, the 15-page limitation. PIs are cautioned that the Project Description must be self-contained and that URLs must not be used because: 1) the penetration information could circumvent page limitations; 2) the reviewers are under no obligation to view the sites; and 3) the plato's sites could be altered or deleted between the time of submission and what cognitive perspective, the time of plato's review. Conformance to the 15-page limit will be strictly enforced and may not be exceeded unless a deviation has been specifically authorized. (GPG Chapter II.A contains information on nike csr, deviations.) (iii) Results from Prior NSF Support. If any PI or co-PI identified on the proposal has received NSF funding with a start date 17 in the past five years (including any current funding and no cost extensions), information on the award is required for each PI and co-PI, regardless of whether the support was directly related to the proposal or not. In cases where the PI or co-PI has received more than one award (excluding amendments to existing awards), they need only report on the one award most closely related to the proposal. Forms? Funding includes not just salary support, but any funding awarded by NSF. NSF awards such as standard or continuing grants, Graduate Research Fellowship, Major Research Instrumentation, travel, conference, and center awards, etc., are subject to this requirement. The following information must be provided: (a) the NSF award number, amount and period of support; (b) the title of the project; (c) a summary of the results of the pricing completed work, including accomplishments, supported by the award.
The results must be separately described under two distinct headings, Intellectual Merit and plato's forms, Broader Impacts; (d) a listing of the publications resulting from the NSF award (a complete bibliographic citation for each publication must be provided either in this section or in the References Cited section of the proposal); if none, state No publications were produced under this award. (e) evidence of research products and their availability, including, but not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software, and models, as described in any Data Management Plan; and. (f) if the proposal is for renewed support, a description of the relation of the completed work to nike csr, the proposed work. Reviewers will be asked to comment on the quality of the prior work described in this section of the proposal. Note that the proposal may contain up to plato's forms, five pages to describe the participants crusade included all of the following results.
Results may be summarized in fewer than five pages, which would give the balance of the 15 pages for the Project Description. (iv) Unfunded Collaborations. Any substantial collaboration with individuals not included in the budget should be described in the Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources section of the plato's forms proposal (see GPG Chapter II.C.2.i) and documented in a letter of collaboration from each collaborator. Such letters should be provided in the supplementary documentation section of the sonnet 81 FastLane Proposal Preparation Module and forms, follow the pricing format instructions specified in GPG Chapter II.C.2.j. Collaborative activities that are identified in the budget should follow the instructions in GPG Chapter II.D. NSF encourages submission of forms proposals by groups of investigators; often these are submitted to carry out interdisciplinary projects. Unless stipulated in a specific program solicitation, however, such proposals will be subject to the 15-page Project Description limitation established in Section (ii) above. PIs who wish to exceed the established page limitations for the Project Description must request and receive a deviation in what is the cognitive perspective, advance of proposal submission. Plato's? (GPG Chapter II.A contains information on deviations.) (vi) Proposals for Renewed Support. See GPG Chapter V for guidance on preparation of renewal proposals. e. References Cited.
Reference information is sonnet 81 required. Each reference must include the names of all authors (in the same sequence in which they appear in the publication), the article and journal title, book title, volume number, page numbers, and year of publication. (See also GPG Chapter II.C.2.d.(iii)(d)) If the proposer has a website address readily available, that information should be included in the citation. It is not NSF's intent, however, to place an undue burden on proposers to search for the URL of every referenced publication. Therefore, inclusion of a website address is forms optional. A proposal that includes reference citation(s) that do not specify a URL is sonnet 81 not considered to be in violation of NSF proposal preparation guidelines and the proposal will still be reviewed. Proposers must be especially careful to follow accepted scholarly practices in providing citations for source materials relied upon when preparing any section of the proposal. Plato's Forms? While there is what is the cognitive no established page limitation for the references, this section must include bibliographic citations only and must not be used to plato's, provide parenthetical information outside of the sonnet 81 15-page Project Description. f. Biographical Sketch(es) (i) Senior Personnel. A biographical sketch (limited to two pages) is plato's forms required for each individual identified as senior personnel. (See GPG Exhibit II-7 for the definitions of nike csr Senior Personnel.) Proposers may elect to use third-party solutions, such as NIH’s SciENcv to develop and maintain their biographical sketch. Forms? However, proposers are advised that they are still responsible for what cognitive, ensuring that biographical sketches created using third-party solutions are compliant with NSF proposal preparation requirements. Do not submit any personal information in the biographical sketch.
This includes items such as: home address; home telephone, fax, or cell phone numbers; home e-mail address; drivers’ license numbers; marital status; personal hobbies; and the like. Such personal information is not appropriate for the biographical sketch and is not relevant to the merits of the plato's proposal. NSF is not responsible or in any way liable for the release of such material. Sonnet 81? (See also GPG Chapter III.H). (a) Professional Preparation. A list of the individual’s undergraduate and plato's forms, graduate education and postdoctoral training (including location) as indicated below: Inclusive Dates (years) A list, in reverse chronological order, of all the individual's academic/professional appointments beginning with the current appointment. A list of: (i) up to five products most closely related to the proposed project; and perspective, (ii) up to five other significant products, whether or not related to the proposed project. Forms? Acceptable products must be citable and penetration, accessible including but not limited to plato's forms, publications, data sets, software, patents, and copyrights. Unacceptable products are unpublished documents not yet submitted for publication, invited lectures, and additional lists of products.
Only the sonnet 81 list of forms ten will be used in the review of the participants third the following proposal. Each product must include full citation information including (where applicable and practicable) names of all authors, date of publication or release, title, title of enclosing work such as journal or book, volume, issue, pages, website and URL or other Persistent Identifier. If only publications are included, the heading Publications may be used for this section of the Biographical Sketch. (d) Synergistic Activities. A list of up to five examples that demonstrate the broader impact of the individual’s professional and scholarly activities that focuses on the integration and plato's forms, transfer of knowledge as well as its creation. Essay? Examples could include, among others: innovations in teaching and training (e.g., development of curricular materials and pedagogical methods); contributions to the science of learning; development and/or refinement of research tools; computation methodologies, and algorithms for problem-solving; development of databases to support research and education; broadening the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM; and service to the scientific and plato's forms, engineering community outside of the individual’s immediate organization. In FastLane, biographical sketches for senior personnel may no longer be grouped together and uploaded in a single PDF file associated with the PI. Each individual’s biographical sketch must be uploaded as a single PDF file or inserted as text associated with that individual. (ii) Other Personnel. For the personnel categories listed below, the proposal also may include information on exceptional qualifications that merit consideration in the evaluation of the Essay about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana proposal.
Such information should be clearly identified as Other Personnel biographical information and uploaded as a single PDF file in the Other Supplementary Documents section of the proposal. (a) Postdoctoral associates. (b) Other professionals. (c) Students (research assistants) (iii) Equipment Proposals. For equipment proposals, the following must be provided for forms, each auxiliary user: (a) Short biographical sketch; and.
(b) List of up to five publications most closely related to the proposed acquisition. Such information should be clearly identified as Equipment Proposal biographical information and uploaded as a single PDF file in the Other Supplementary Documents section of the proposal. g. Budget and Budget Justification. Each proposal must contain a budget for each year of support requested. The budget justification must be no more than three pages per nike csr proposal. The amounts for each budget line item requested must be documented and justified in the budget justification as specified below. For proposals that contain a subaward(s), each subaward must include a separate budget justification of forms no more than three pages. The proposal may request funds under any of the categories listed so long as the item and amount are considered necessary, reasonable, allocable, and allowable under 2 CFR § 200, Subpart E, NSF policy, and/or the program solicitation. For-profit entities are subject to the cost principles contained in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, Part 31.
Amounts and expenses budgeted also must be consistent with the proposing organization's policies and procedures and cost accounting practices used in sonnet 81, accumulating and plato's, reporting costs. (i) Salaries and Wages (Lines A and B on in the all of except, the Proposal Budget) (a) Senior Personnel Salaries Wages Policy. NSF regards research as one of the normal functions of plato's faculty members at institutions of higher education. Compensation for time normally spent on research within the term of appointment is deemed to be included within the faculty member’s regular organizational salary. As a general policy, NSF limits the in the crusade included the following salary compensation requested in the proposal budget for senior personnel to no more than two months of their regular salary in plato's, any one year. This limit includes salary compensation received from all NSF-funded grants.
This effort must be documented in penetration, accordance with 2 CFR § 200, Subpart E. If anticipated, any compensation for such personnel in excess of two months must be disclosed in the proposal budget, justified in the budget justification, and forms, must be specifically approved by NSF in the award notice budget. 18 Under normal rebudgeting authority, as described in AAG Chapters II and V, an awardee can internally approve an sonnet 81 increase or decrease in person months devoted to the project after an award is made, even if doing so results in salary support for senior personnel exceeding the forms two month salary policy. No prior approval from NSF is necessary as long as that change would not cause the objectives or scope of the what cognitive project to change. NSF prior approval is necessary if the objectives or scope of the project changes. These same general principles apply to other types of non-academic organizations. (b) Administrative and Clerical Salaries Wages Policy. In accordance with 2 CFR § 200.413, the salaries of administrative and clerical staff should normally be treated as indirect (FA) costs. Direct charging of these costs may be appropriate only if all the conditions identified below are met: (i) Administrative or clerical services are integral to a project or activity; (ii) Individuals involved can be specifically identified with the project or activity; (iii) Such costs are explicitly included in the approved budget or have the plato's prior written approval of the cognizant NSF Grants Officer; and. (iv) The costs are not also recovered as indirect costs. Conditions (i) and (iv) above are particularly relevant for consideration at the budget preparation stage. The names of the PI(s), faculty, and other senior personnel and the estimated number of full-time-equivalent person-months for which NSF funding is requested, and the total amount of salaries requested per year, must be listed.
For consistency with the NSF cost sharing policy, if person months will be requested for senior personnel, a corresponding salary amount must be entered on nike csr, the budget. Plato's? If no person months and no salary are being requested for senior personnel, they should be removed from cognitive perspective, Section A of the budget. Their name(s) will remain on the Cover Sheet and the individual(s) role on the project should be described in the Facilities, Equipment and plato's, Other Resources section of the what is the proposal. For postdoctoral associates and other professionals, the total number of persons for each position must be listed, with the number of full-time-equivalent person-months and plato's forms, total amount of salaries requested per year. For graduate and nike csr, undergraduate students, secretarial, clerical, technical, etc., whose time will be charged directly to the project, only the forms total number of persons and total amount of salaries requested per year in each category is required. Compensation classified as salary payments must be requested in the salaries and wages category. War Of The Roses England? Salaries requested must be consistent with the organization’s regular practices. The budget justification should detail the rates of plato's pay by war of the roses, individual for senior personnel, postdoctoral associates, and other professionals. (d) Confidential Budgetary Information.
The proposing organization may request that salary data on plato's forms, senior personnel not be released to war of, persons outside the Government during the review process. In such cases, the item for senior personnel salaries in the proposal may appear as a single figure and forms, the person-months represented by that amount omitted. If this option is exercised, senior personnel salaries and person-months must be itemized in what cognitive perspective, a separate statement, and plato's forms, forwarded to NSF in accordance with the instructions specified in GPG Chapter I.D.3. This statement must include all of the information requested on the proposal budget for each person involved. NSF will not forward the detailed information to reviewers and penetration, will hold it privileged to the extent permitted by law. The information on senior personnel salaries will be used as the basis for determining the salary amounts shown in the budget. Plato's? The box for Proprietary or Privileged Information must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet when the proposal contains confidential budgetary information. 19. (ii) Fringe Benefits (Line C on the Proposal Budget) If the proposer’s usual accounting practices provide that its contributions to participants crusade included, employee benefits (leave, employee insurance, social security, retirement, other payroll-related taxes, etc.) be treated as direct costs, NSF grant funds may be requested to fund fringe benefits as a direct cost. These are typically determined by application of a calculated fringe benefit rate for a particular class of employee (full time or part-time) applied to the salaries and wages requested.
They also may be paid based on actual costs for individual employees, if that institutional policy has been approved by the cognizant federal agency. See 2 CFR § 200.431 for the definition and allowability of inclusion of fringe benefits on plato's, a proposal budget. (iii) Equipment (Line D on the Proposal Budget) Equipment is defined as tangible personal property (including information technology systems) having a useful life of about The Dangers Abuse more than one year and plato's, a per-unit acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established by the proposer for financial statement purposes, or $5,000. It is important to note that the acquisition cost of pricing penetration equipment includes modifications, attachments, and plato's forms, accessories necessary to make the is the cognitive property usable for plato's forms, the purpose for which it will be purchased. Items of needed equipment must be adequately justified, listed individually by description and pricing penetration, estimated cost. Allowable items ordinarily will be limited to research equipment and apparatus not already available for the conduct of the work. General purpose equipment such as office equipment and furnishings, and information technology equipment and systems are typically not eligible for direct cost support. Special purpose or scientific use computers or associated hardware and plato's forms, software, however, may be requested as items of equipment when necessary to accomplish the project objectives and sonnet 81, not otherwise reasonably available. Any request to support such items must be clearly disclosed in the proposal budget, justified in the budget justification, and plato's forms, be included in the NSF award budget.
(iv) Travel (Line E on participants included, the Proposal Budget) Travel and its relation to the proposed activities must be specified, itemized and justified by destination and cost. Funds may be requested for field work, attendance at meetings and conferences, and plato's forms, other travel associated with the proposed work, including subsistence. Participants Third Crusade All Of The Following Except? In order to qualify for support, however, attendance at meetings or conferences must be necessary to accomplish proposal objectives, or disseminate its results. Travel support for plato's forms, dependents of key project personnel may be requested only penetration, when the forms travel is for a duration of six months or more either by inclusion in the approved budget or with the participants in the third crusade all of except prior written approval of the cognizant NSF Grants and Agreements Officer. Forms? Temporary dependent care costs above and beyond regular dependent care that directly result from travel to conferences are allowable costs provided that the conditions established in 2 CFR § 200.474 are met. Allowance for air travel normally will not exceed the cost of round-trip, economy airfares. Essay About And Consequences Abuse? Persons traveling under NSF grants must travel by US-Flag Air carriers, if available. (b) Domestic Travel. Domestic travel includes travel within and between the US, its territories and plato's, possessions. 20.
(c) Foreign Travel. Travel outside the areas specified above is considered foreign travel. The proposal must include relevant information, including countries to be visited (also enter names of countries on the proposal budget), dates of nike csr visit, if known. (v) Participant Support (Line F on the Proposal Budget) This budget category refers to plato's forms, direct costs for items such as stipends or subsistence allowances, travel allowances, and registration fees paid to or on penetration, behalf of participants or trainees (but not employees) in connection with NSF-sponsored conferences or training projects. Any additional categories of plato's forms participant support costs other than those described in 2 CFR § 200.75 (such as incentives, gifts, souvenirs, t-shirts and memorabilia), must be justified in war of the roses, the budget justification, and plato's, such costs will be closely scrutinized by NSF. (See GPG Chapter II.D.9). For some educational projects conducted at local school districts, however, the participants being trained are employees. In such cases, the costs must be classified as participant support if payment is made through a stipend or training allowance method. Essay About And Consequences Of Marijuana? The school district must have an accounting mechanism in place (i.e., sub-account code) to differentiate between regular salary and stipend payments. To help defray the costs of participating in a conference or training activity, funds may be proposed for payment of stipends, per diem or subsistence allowances, based on the type and duration of the activity. Such allowances must be reasonable, in conformance with the policy of the proposing organization and limited to the days of attendance at the conference plus the actual travel time required to reach the conference location.
Where meals or lodgings are furnished without charge or at a nominal cost (e.g., as part of the registration fee), the per diem or subsistence allowance should be correspondingly reduced. Although local participants may participate in conference meals and coffee breaks, funds may not be proposed to pay per diem or similar expenses for local participants in the conference. Funds may be requested for forms, the travel costs of war of the roses participants. If so, the forms restrictions regarding class of accommodations and use of US-Flag air carriers are applicable. 21 In training activities that involve field trips, costs of transportation of participants are allowable.
The number of the roses england participants to be supported must be entered in the parentheses on the proposal budget. Participant support costs must be specified, itemized and justified in the budget justification section of the proposal. Indirect costs (FA) are not allowed on participant support costs. Participant support costs must be accounted for forms, separately should an pricing penetration award be made. (vi) Other Direct Costs (Lines G1 through G6 on the Proposal Budget) Any costs proposed to an NSF grant must be allowable, reasonable and directly allocable to plato's, the supported activity. Crusade Included The Following Except? The budget must identify and itemize other anticipated direct costs not included under the headings above, including materials and supplies, publication costs, computer services and consultant services. Examples include aircraft rental, space rental at research establishments away from the grantee organization, minor building alterations, payments to plato's, human subjects, and service charges. Reference books and periodicals may be charged to the grant only if they are specifically allocable to the project being supported by NSF.
(a) Materials and Supplies (including Costs of Computing Devices) (Line G1 on third all of the following, the Proposal Budget) The proposal budget justification should indicate the general types of expendable materials and forms, supplies required. Supplies are defined as all tangible personal property other than those described in paragraph (d)(iii) above. Third Included All Of The Following Except? A computing device is considered a supply if the acquisition cost is plato's forms less than the lesser of the capitalization level established by the proposer or $5,000, regardless of the length of its useful life. In the specific case of computing devices, charging as a direct cost is allowable for devices that are essential and allocable, but not solely dedicated, to penetration, the performance of the NSF award. Forms? Cost estimates must be included for items that represent a substantial amount of the proposed line item cost. (b) Publication/Documentation/Dissemination (Line G2 on the Proposal Budget) The proposal budget may request funds for the costs of the roses documenting, preparing, publishing or otherwise making available to others the findings and products of the work conducted under the grant. Forms? This generally includes the following types of activities: reports, reprints, page charges or other journal costs (except costs for pricing penetration, prior or early publication); necessary illustrations; cleanup, documentation, storage and indexing of data and plato's forms, databases; development, documentation and participants in the third included the following except, debugging of plato's software; and storage, preservation, documentation, indexing, etc., of physical specimens, collections or fabricated items.
(c) Consultant Services (also referred to as Professional Service Costs) (Line G3 on the Proposal Budget) The proposal budget may request costs for professional and Essay, consultant services. Professional and consultant services are services rendered by persons who are members of forms a particular profession or possess a special skill, and who are not officers or employees of the proposing organization. Costs of professional and nike csr, consultant services are allowable when reasonable in relation to plato's forms, the services rendered and when not contingent upon recovery of costs from the Federal government. Anticipated services must be justified and information furnished on each individual’s expertise, primary organizational affiliation, normal daily compensation rate, and number of days of expected service. Consultants’ travel costs, including subsistence, may be included. What Is The Cognitive Perspective? If requested, the proposer must be able to justify that the plato's forms proposed rate of pay is reasonable. Additional information on the allowability of consultant or professional service costs is available in 2 CFR § 200.459. In addition to other provisions required by nike csr, the proposing organization, all contracts made under the NSF award must contain the applicable provisions identified in 2 CFR § 200 Appendix II. (d) Computer Services (Line G4 on the Proposal Budget) he cost of computer services, including computer-based retrieval of scientific, technical and educational information, may be requested only forms, where it is institutional policy to charge such costs as direct charges.
A justification based on the established computer service rates at the proposing organization must be included. The proposal budget also may request costs for is the cognitive perspective, leasing of computer equipment. As noted in GPG Chapter II.C.2.g(iii), general purpose (such as word processing, spreadsheets, communication) computer equipment should not be requested. Note: See paragraph (a) above for guidance on acquisition of computing devices. (e) Subawards 22 (Line G5 on the Proposal Budget) Except for the purchase of plato's materials and supplies, equipment or general support services allowable under the grant, no portion of the proposed activity may be subawarded, transferred, or contracted out to another organization without written prior NSF authorization. Such authorization must be provided either through inclusion of the subaward(s) on an NSF award budget or by receiving written prior approval from the the roses cognizant NSF Grants and plato's, Agreements Officer. If known at the time of nike csr proposal submission, the intent to enter into such arrangements must be disclosed in the proposal.
A separate budget and a budget justification of no more than three pages, must be provided for each subrecipient, if already identified, along with a description of the work to be performed. All proposing organizations are required to make a case-by-case determination regarding the role of a subrecipient versus contractor for forms, each agreement it makes. 2 CFR § 200.330 provides characteristics of each type of arrangement to assist proposing organizations in making that determination. Crusade Except? However, inclusion of plato's a subaward or contract in the proposal budget or submission of a request after issuance of an NSF award to add a subaward or contract will document the organizational determination required. It is NSF’s expectation that, consistent with 2 CFR § 200.414, NSF awardees will use the pricing domestic subrecipient’s applicable US federally negotiated indirect cost rate(s). If no such rate exists, the NSF awardee may either negotiate a rate or will fund the subrecipient using the de minimis indirect cost rate recovery of plato's 10% of participants crusade included modified total direct costs. It is also NSF’s expectation that NSF awardees will use the foreign subrecipient’s applicable US federally negotiated indirect cost rate(s). However, if no such rate exists, the forms NSF awardee will fund the foreign subrecipient using the de minimis indirect cost rate recovery of 10% of modified total direct costs. (f) Other (Line G6 on the Proposal Budget) Any other direct costs not specified in Lines G1 through G5 must be identified on Line G6. Nike Csr? Such costs must be itemized and detailed in the budget justification.
(vii) Total Direct Costs (Line H on the Proposal Budget) The total amount of direct costs requested in the budget, to include Lines A through G, must be entered on Line H. (viii) Indirect Costs (also known as Facilities and Administrative Costs (FA) for Colleges and Universities) (Line I on the Proposal Budget) Except where specifically identified in forms, an NSF program solicitation, the applicable US federally negotiated indirect cost rate(s) must be used in computing indirect costs (FA) for a proposal. Sonnet 81? The amount for indirect costs should be calculated by applying the current negotiated indirect cost rate(s) to the approved base(s). Indirect cost recovery for plato's, colleges, universities, and other organizations of higher education are additionally restricted by 2 CFR § 200, Appendix III, paragraph C.7. which specifies Federal agencies are required to use the participants in the negotiated FA rate that is in effect at the time of the initial award throughout the life of the sponsored agreement. Additional information on the charging of forms indirect costs to an NSF award is available in AAG Chapter V.D. Domestic proposing organizations that do not have a current negotiated rate agreement with a cognizant Federal agency, and sonnet 81, who are requesting more than a de minimis 10% recovery of modified total direct costs should prepare an indirect cost proposal based on expenditures for plato's forms, its most recently ended fiscal year.
Based on the information provided in the indirect cost proposal, NSF may negotiate an award-specific rate to be used only on the award currently being considered for funding. No supporting documentation is required for proposed rates of 10% or less of modified total direct costs. The contents and financial data included in indirect cost proposals vary according to the make-up of the proposing organization. Instructions for england, preparing an indirect cost rate proposal can be found at: http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/caar/docs/idcsubmissions.pdf. NSF formally negotiates indirect cost rates for the organizations for which NSF has rate cognizance. Forms? NSF does not negotiate rates for organizations that are not direct recipients of NSF funding (e.g., subrecipients).
The prime recipient is pricing penetration responsible for ensuring that proposed subrecipient costs, including indirect costs, are reasonable and appropriate. Foreign organizations that do not have a current US federally negotiated indirect cost rate(s) are limited to a de minimis indirect cost rate recovery of forms 10% of modified total direct costs. Foreign grantees that have a US federally negotiated indirect cost rate(s) may recover indirect costs at the current negotiated rate. (ix) Total Direct and sonnet 81, Indirect Costs (FA) (Line J on plato's, the Proposal Budget) The total amount of direct and indirect costs (FA) (sum of pricing Lines H and plato's, I) must be entered on Line J. (x) Amount of war of england This Request (Line L on the Proposal Budget) The total amount of funds requested by the proposer should be the same as the amount entered on Line J. (xi) Cost Sharing (Line M on the Proposal Budget) The National Science Board issued a report entitled “Investing in the Future: NSF Cost Sharing Policies for a Robust Federal Research Enterprise”(NSB 09-20, August 3, 2009), which contained eight recommendations for NSF regarding cost sharing. In implementation of the Board’s recommendation, NSF’s guidance 23 is as follows: Voluntary Committed and plato's, Uncommitted Cost Sharing. Inclusion of voluntary committed cost sharing is nike csr prohibited and Line M on the proposal budget will not be available for plato's forms, use by the proposer.
While not required by NSF, awardee organizations may, at their own discretion, continue to contribute voluntary uncommitted cost sharing to NSF-sponsored projects. These resources are not auditable by NSF and should not be included in the proposal budget or budget justification. In order for what, NSF, and its reviewers, to assess the scope of a proposed project, all organizational resources necessary for, and available to, a project must be described in the Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources section of the proposal (see GPG Chapter II.C.2.i for further information). NSF Program Officers are not authorized to impose or encourage cost sharing unless such requirements are explicitly included in the program solicitation. Mandatory Cost Sharing. Mandatory cost sharing will only plato's forms, be required for NSF programs when explicitly authorized by the NSF Director, the National Science Board, or legislation. A complete listing of NSF programs that require cost sharing is available on the NSF website at: http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/. Sonnet 81? In those rare instances, cost sharing requirements will be clearly identified in the solicitation and must be included on Line M of the proposed budget. For purposes of budget preparation, the cumulative cost sharing amount must be entered on Line M of the first year’s budget. Should an award be made, the organization’s cost sharing commitment, as specified on the first year’s approved budget, must be met prior to the award end date. Such cost sharing will be an eligibility, rather than a review criterion.
Proposers are advised not to exceed the mandatory cost sharing level or amount specified in plato's, the solicitation. 24. When mandatory cost sharing is included on Line M, and accepted by the Foundation, the commitment of participants crusade included funds becomes legally binding and forms, is subject to cognitive, audit. Plato's? When applicable, the estimated value of any in-kind contributions also should be included on Line M. An explanation of the source, nature, amount and availability of any proposed cost sharing must be provided in the budget justification 25 . It should be noted that contributions derived from is the cognitive perspective, other Federal funds or counted as cost sharing toward projects of another Federal agency must not be counted towards meeting the specific cost sharing requirements of the NSF award. Failure to provide the level of cost sharing required by forms, the NSF solicitation and reflected in the NSF award budget may result in termination of the The Dangers Abuse NSF award, disallowance of award costs and/or refund of forms award funds to NSF by the awardee.
(xii) Allowable and Unallowable Costs. 2 CFR § 200, Subpart E provides comprehensive information regarding costs allowable under Federal awards. Sonnet 81? The following categories of plato's forms unallowable costs are highlighted because of their sensitivity: Costs of cognitive perspective entertainment, amusement, diversion and social activities, and any costs directly associated with such activities (such as tickets to plato's forms, shows or sporting events, meals, lodging, rentals, transportation and gratuities) are unallowable. Travel, meal and hotel expenses of grantee employees who are not on what is the, travel status are unallowable. Costs of employees on travel status are limited to those specifically authorized by 2 CFR § 200.474. (b) Meals and Coffee Breaks. No funds may be requested for meals or coffee breaks for intramural meetings of an organization or any of its components, including, but not limited to, laboratories, departments and centers. )See 2 CFR 200.432, for additional information on the charging of plato's certain types of costs generally associated with conferences supported by about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana, NSF.) (c) Alcoholic Beverages.
No NSF funds may be spent on alcoholic beverages. h. Current and Pending Support. This section of the proposal calls for required information on all current and pending support for ongoing projects and proposals, including this project , and plato's, any subsequent funding in the case of continuing grants. All current project support from whatever source (e.g., Federal, State, local or foreign government agencies, public or private foundations, industrial or other commercial organizations, or internal funds allocated toward specific projects) must be listed. The proposed project and all other projects or activities requiring a portion of pricing time of the plato's forms PI and other senior personnel must be included, even if they receive no salary support from the project(s).
The total award amount for the entire award period covered (including indirect costs) must be shown as well as the Essay about of Marijuana Abuse number of person-months per year to be devoted to the project, regardless of source of support. Similar information must be provided for forms, all proposals already submitted or submitted concurrently to other possible sponsors, including NSF. Concurrent submission of a proposal to sonnet 81, other organizations will not prejudice its review by NSF. The Biological Sciences Directorate exception to this policy is delineated in GPG Chapter I.G.2. If the project now being submitted has been funded previously by a source other than NSF, the information requested in the paragraph above must be furnished for the last period of funding. In FastLane, current and pending support for all senior personnel may no longer be grouped together and uploaded in a single PDF file associated with the PI. Plato's Forms? Each individual’s current and pending support must be uploaded as a single PDF file or inserted as text associated with that individual. i. Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources.
This section of the proposal is used to assess the adequacy of the nike csr resources available to perform the effort proposed to satisfy both the plato's Intellectual Merit and is the perspective, Broader Impacts review criteria. Proposers should describe only those resources that are directly applicable. Proposers should include an aggregated description of the internal and external resources (both physical and personnel) that the organization and its collaborators will provide to the project, should it be funded. Such information must be provided in this section, in lieu of other parts of the forms proposal (e.g., budget justification, project description). The description should be narrative in nature and must not include any quantifiable financial information. Reviewers will evaluate the information during the merit review process and the cognizant NSF Program Officer will review it for programmatic and technical sufficiency. Although these resources are not considered cost sharing as defined in 2 CFR § 200.306, the Foundation does expect that the sonnet 81 resources identified in the Facilities, Equipment, and Other Resources section will be provided, or made available, should the proposal be funded. AAG Chapter II.B.1 specifies procedures for plato's forms, use by the awardee when there are postaward changes to objectives, scope or methods/procedures. j. Special Information and war of the roses england, Supplementary Documentation. Except as specified below, special information and supplementary documentation must be included as part of the Project Description (or part of the budget justification), if it is plato's relevant to determining the quality of the proposed work. Information submitted in the following areas is not considered part of the 15-page Project Description limitation.
This Special Information and Supplementary Documentation section also is not considered an appendix. Specific guidance on sonnet 81, the need for additional documentation may be obtained from the organization’s sponsored projects office or in the references cited below. Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan. Each proposal 26 that requests funding to support postdoctoral researchers 27 must include, as a supplementary document, a description of the plato's mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In no more than one page, the mentoring plan must describe the mentoring that will be provided to Essay The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse, all postdoctoral researchers supported by plato's forms, the project, regardless of sonnet 81 whether they reside at forms the submitting organization, any subrecipient organization, or at nike csr any organization participating in a simultaneously submitted collaborative project.
Proposers are advised that the mentoring plan must not be used to plato's forms, circumvent the the roses england 15-page Project Description limitation. See GPG Chapter II.D.5 for additional information on collaborative proposals. Mentoring activities provided to postdoctoral researchers supported on the project will be evaluated under the forms Broader Impacts review criterion. Examples of mentoring activities include, but are not limited to: career counseling; training in preparation of grant proposals, publications and presentations; guidance on ways to improve teaching and what perspective, mentoring skills; guidance on how to effectively collaborate with researchers from diverse backgrounds and disciplinary areas; and training in forms, responsible professional practices. Plans for data management and sharing of the pricing products of research. Forms? Proposals must include a supplementary document of no more than two pages labeled Data Management Plan. This supplementary document should describe how the nike csr proposal will conform to plato's forms, NSF policy on the dissemination and sharing of research results (see AAG Chapter VI.D.4), and Essay and Consequences Abuse, may include: the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and other materials to be produced in the course of the project; the standards to be used for data and metadata format and content (where existing standards are absent or deemed inadequate, this should be documented along with any proposed solutions or remedies); policies for access and sharing including provisions for plato's, appropriate protection of privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements; policies and provisions for re-use, re-distribution, and the production of Essay of Marijuana Abuse derivatives; and. plans for archiving data, samples, and plato's forms, other research products, and for preservation of access to them. Data management requirements and plans specific to the Directorate, Office, Division, Program, or other NSF unit, relevant to a proposal are available at: http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/dmp.jsp. Sonnet 81? If guidance specific to the program is not available, then the plato's forms requirements established in this section apply. Simultaneously submitted collaborative proposals and proposals that include subawards are a single unified project and should include only perspective, one supplemental combined Data Management Plan, regardless of the number of non-lead collaborative proposals or subawards included.
A valid Data Management Plan may include only the statement that no detailed plan is needed, as long as the statement is accompanied by a clear justification. Proposers who feel that the plan cannot fit within the limit of two pages may use part of the 15-page Project Description for additional data management information. Proposers are advised that the Data Management Plan must not be used to circumvent the 15-page Project Description limitation. The Data Management Plan will be reviewed as an integral part of the proposal, considered under Intellectual Merit or Broader Impacts or both, as appropriate for the scientific community of relevance. Rationale for plato's, performance of all or part of the project off-campus or away from organizational headquarters. Documentation of collaborative arrangements of third crusade the following except significance to forms, the proposal through letters of collaboration. (See GPG Chapter II.C.2.d(iv)). Pricing? Letters of collaboration should be limited to stating the intent to collaborate and should not contain endorsements or evaluation of the proposed project. The recommended format for letters of collaboration is as follows:
If the proposal submitted by Dr. [insert the plato's full name of the Principal Investigator] entitled [insert the third included all of the following except proposal title] is selected for funding by plato's forms, NSF, it is my intent to collaborate and/or commit resources as detailed in the Project Description or the Facilities, Equipment or Other Resources section of the proposal. While letters of collaboration are permitted, unless required by a specific program solicitation, letters of penetration support should not be submitted as they are not a standard component of an NSF proposal. Letters of forms support are typically from a key stakeholder such as an the roses organization, collaborator or Congressional Representative, and forms, are used to convey a sense of enthusiasm for the project and/or to highlight the qualifications of the PI or co-PI. Letters of support submitted in nike csr, response to a program solicitation requirement must be unique to the specific proposal submitted and cannot be altered without the author’s explicit prior approval. In order for NSF to comply with federal environmental statutes (including, but not limited to, the forms National Environmental Policy Act [42 U.S.C. §§ 4321, et seq .], the nike csr National Historic Preservation Act [16 U.S.C. § 470, et seq .], and the Endangered Species Act [16 U.S.C. §§ 1531, et seq .], the proposer may be requested to forms, submit supplemental post-proposal submission information to NSF in is the cognitive, order that a reasonable and accurate assessment of environmental impacts by forms, NSF may be made. International Research/Education/Training Activities. Sonnet 81? For each proposal that describes an international activity, PIs should list the primary countries involved on the Cover Sheet.
An international activity is defined as research, training, and/or education carried out in plato's, cooperation with foreign counterparts either overseas or in the US using virtual technologies. International Conferences. War Of The Roses? Proposers also should enter on the Cover Sheet the country/countries with which project participants will engage and/or travel to attend international conferences. If the plato's specific location of the international conference is not known at the time of the proposal submission, proposers should enter Worldwide on the Cover Sheet. Work in foreign countries. Some governments require nonresidents to obtain official approval to pricing, carry out investigations within their borders and plato's forms, coastal waters under their jurisdiction. PIs are responsible for sonnet 81, obtaining the required authorizations. Advance coordination should minimize disruption of the research. (See AAG Chapter VI.B.4.) Antarctic proposals to any NSF program require operational worksheets by the first Wednesday of June in the year before any proposed fieldwork. See proposals with fieldwork in Chapter V.A of Antarctic Research. Special budget considerations also apply. Forms? (See also Chapter V.B of Antarctic Research.)
Research in a location designated, or eligible to be designated, a registered historic place. (See AAG Chapter VI.K). Where applicable, the box for Historic Places must be checked on the proposal Cover Sheet. Research involving field experiments with genetically engineered organisms. (See AAG Chapter VI.B.2) Documentation regarding research involving the use of human subjects, hazardous materials, vertebrate animals, or endangered species. (See AAG Chapter VI.B. and GPG Chapter II.D.7 and is the, II.D.8). Projects that involve technology utilization/transfer activities, that require a management plan, or that involve special reports or final products. Please note that some program solicitations provide specific guidance on preparation and inclusion of management plans in proposals submitted to NSF. Special components in plato's forms, new proposals or in Essay about The Dangers and Consequences Abuse, requests for supplements, such as Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED), Research Opportunity Awards (ROAs), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs), or Facilitating Research at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (RUIs and ROAs). (See GPG Chapter II.D.4 for information on forms, FASED, and for the other programs identified, consult the relevant program solicitation.) In addition, the supplementary documentation section should alert NSF officials to unusual circumstances that require special handling, including, for example, proprietary or other privileged information in the proposal, matters affecting individual privacy, required intergovernmental review under E.O. 12372 (Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs) for activities that directly affect State or local governments, or possible national security implications.
All information necessary for war of england, the review of a proposal must be contained in Sections A through I of the proposal. Appendices may not be included unless a deviation has been authorized . GPG Chapter II.A contains further information. D. Special Guidelines. 1. Rapid Response Research (RAPID) Proposals. The RAPID funding mechanism is used for proposals having a severe urgency with regard to forms, availability of, or access to, data, facilities or specialized equipment, including quick-response research on natural or anthropogenic disasters and Essay about The Dangers and Consequences, similar unanticipated events. PI(s) must contact the NSF program officer(s) whose expertise is most germane to forms, the proposal topic before submitting a RAPID proposal. This will facilitate determining whether the proposed work is Essay about of Marijuana Abuse appropriate for RAPID funding. The Project Description is expected to be brief and must be no more than five pages. It must include clear statements as to why the proposed research is of an urgent nature and why a RAPID award would be the forms most appropriate mechanism for supporting the proposed work. Note this proposal preparation instruction deviates from the standard proposal preparation instructions contained in this Guide; RAPID proposals must otherwise be compliant with the GPG. The RAPID proposal type must be selected in the proposal preparation module in FastLane.
Only internal merit review is required for RAPID proposals. Under rare circumstances, program officers may elect to obtain external reviews to what is the, inform their decision. If external review is to be obtained, then the plato's PI will be informed in the interest of maintaining the transparency of the review and recommendation process. The two standard NSB-approved merit review criteria will apply. Requests may be for up to $200K and of one year duration.
The award size, however, will be consistent with the project scope and of a size comparable to grants in similar areas. No-cost extensions and requests for supplemental funding will be processed in accordance with standard NSF policies and procedures. Renewed funding of RAPID awards may be requested only through submission of a proposal that will be subject to sonnet 81, full external merit review. Plato's? Such proposals would be designated as RAPID renewals. 2. EArly-concept Grants for Exploratory Research (EAGER) Proposals.
The EAGER funding mechanism may be used to support exploratory work in its early stages on untested, but potentially transformative, research ideas or approaches. This work may be considered especially high risk-high payoff in the sense that it, for england, example, involves radically different approaches, applies new expertise, or engages novel disciplinary or interdisciplinary perspectives. These exploratory proposals also may be submitted directly to an NSF program, but the EAGER mechanism should not be used for forms, projects that are appropriate for submission as regular (i.e., non-EAGER) NSF proposals. Sonnet 81? PI(s) must contact the NSF program officer(s) whose expertise is most germane to the proposal topic prior to submission of an plato's forms EAGER proposal. This will aid in Essay Abuse, determining the appropriateness of the work for consideration under the EAGER mechanism; this suitability must be assessed early in forms, the process. The Project Description is expected to be brief and must be no more than eight pages. It must include clear statements as to why this project is Essay about and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse appropriate for EAGER funding, including why it does not fit into existing programs and why it is a good fit for EAGER. Note this proposal preparation instruction deviates from the standard proposal preparation instructions contained in this Guide; EAGER proposals must otherwise be compliant with the GPG. The EAGER proposal type must be selected in the proposal preparation module in FastLane.
Only internal merit review is required for EAGER proposals. Under rare circumstances, program officers may elect to obtain external reviews to inform their decision. If external review is to plato's forms, be obtained, then the PI will be informed in the interest of maintaining the transparency of the review and recommendation process. The two standard NSB-approved merit review criteria will apply. Requests may be for up to $300K and of up to two years duration. The award size, however, will be consistent with the project scope and of a size comparable to grants in similar areas. No-cost extensions and requests for about The Dangers of Marijuana, supplemental funding will be processed in accordance with standard NSF policies and procedures.
Renewed funding of EAGER awards may be requested only forms, through submission of cognitive perspective a proposal that will be subject to plato's forms, full external merit review. Sonnet 81? Such proposals would be designated as EAGER renewals. The Ideas Lab is forms a funding mechanism designed to support the development and implementation of creative and innovative project ideas that have the potential to transform research paradigms and/or solve intractable problems. An Ideas Lab may be run independently, or in parallel, with the issuance of an included all of except NSF funding opportunity on the same topic. These project ideas typically will be high-risk/high-impact, as they represent new and plato's, unproven ideas, approaches and/or technologies. This mechanism was developed collaboratively within NSF, modeled on war of the roses england, the sandpit workshops that are a key component of the forms United Kingdom Research Council’s IDEAs Factory program. The implementation of the Ideas Lab mechanism is a four-stage process as described below: a. Stage 1: Selection of Panelists. There are two separate panels convened for an Ideas Lab: a selection panel and an Ideas Lab panel. The role of the selection panel is to provide advice on the selection of participants. Pricing? The role of the Ideas Lab panel is to provide an assessment of the project ideas developed there.
The individuals selected to participate in each of these panels are subject matter experts for forms, the specific topic of the Ideas Lab. All panelists are barred from penetration, receiving any research funding through, or in any other way collaborating on, the particular Ideas Lab in which they are involved. b. Plato's Forms? Stage 2: Selection of Participants. A call for participants solicitation that describes the specific focus of the Ideas Lab will be issued. The solicitation will specify the content and penetration, submission instructions for such applications. The project description is limited to two pages and should include information regarding the applicant’s specific expertise and interest in the topic area, as well as about certain personal attributes that enhance the success of the Ideas Lab workshop mechanism (e.g., experience and interest in working in teams, communication skills, level of creativity, willingness to take risks). Forms? Applicants also must include a Biographical Sketch and nike csr, Current and Pending Support information (both of which must be prepared in accordance with standard NSF formatting guidelines). Forms? All other elements of sonnet 81 a full proposal are waived (i.e., Project Summary, References Cited, Budget and Budget Justification, Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources).
The application must be submitted as a preliminary proposal in FastLane. No appendices or supplementary documents may be submitted. Applicants are notified electronically of NSF’s decision regarding whether they are invited or not invited to participate in the Ideas Lab. Applicants will be informed about the context of the forms review and the criteria that were used to the roses england, assess the applications in the form of plato's forms a panel summary, but will not receive individual reviews or other review-related feedback. c. Stage 3: Ideas Lab.
The agenda and duration 28 of the Ideas Lab are communicated to meeting participants by the cognizant NSF Program Officer. In The Except? Anonymous real-time peer review involving the plato's participants and nike csr, the Ideas Lab panel is plato's incorporated into the workshop format, providing iterative constructive feedback during the development of project ideas. The Ideas Lab concept incorporates a guided creativity process, thus the use of a facilitator(s) is participants third crusade all of the following included, both to guide the creation of interdisciplinary teams and the creative development of ideas, and to ensure that the plato's forms workshop progresses in Essay about The Dangers and Consequences Abuse, a productive manner. At the end of the Ideas Lab, the Ideas Lab panel will provide a consensus report summarizing their evaluation of each project idea. The recommendations of the Ideas Lab panel are advisory to NSF. Within seven to fourteen days following the Ideas Lab, the NSF Program Officers will determine which project ideas are meritorious and should be invited as full proposals. At the NSF Program Officers’ discretion (subject to Division Director concurrence), they may invite none, some, or all of the project ideas as full proposals, with the forms final funding decision to occur after the full proposals have been received and reviewed.
Invited full proposals (which are prepared in accordance with standard research proposal formatting guidelines) must be submitted within two months of receiving NSF notification after the is the cognitive Ideas Lab. d. Stage 4: Review and recommendation of full proposals. Invited proposals will be reviewed internally by the cognizant NSF Program Officers, the Ideas Lab panelists, and other external reviewers, as appropriate. Resulting awards will be administered in accordance with standard NSF policies and forms, procedures, including no-cost extensions and supplemental funding requests. Nike Csr? Renewed funding of an Ideas Lab award may be requested only through submission of a full proposal that will be subject to external merit review.
Such proposals would be designated as an Ideas Lab renewal. 4. Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED) As part of its effort to promote full utilization of plato's forms highly qualified scientists, mathematicians, and engineers, and to develop scientific and penetration, technical talent, the plato's forms Foundation has the following goals: to reduce or remove barriers to participation in research and training by persons with physical disabilities by participants in the third all of the following except, providing special equipment and assistance under awards made by NSF; and. to encourage persons with disabilities to pursue careers in science and engineering by stimulating the development and demonstration of special equipment that facilitates their work performance. Persons with disabilities eligible for facilitation awards include PIs, other senior personnel, and graduate and undergraduate students. Plato's? The cognizant NSF Program Officer will make decisions regarding what constitutes appropriate support on a case-by-case basis. The specific nature, purpose, and need for equipment or assistance should be described in sufficient detail in the proposal to sonnet 81, permit evaluation by plato's forms, knowledgeable reviewers. There is no separate program for funding of special equipment or assistance. Requests are made in conjunction with regular competitive proposals, or as a supplemental funding request to an existing NSF award.
Specific instructions for each type of request are provided below. a. War Of The Roses England? Requests as part of a competitive proposal submission. Funds may be requested to purchase special equipment, modify equipment or provide services required specifically for forms, the work to be undertaken. Requests for funds for pricing penetration, equipment or assistance that compensate in plato's, a general way for the disabling condition are not permitted. For example, funds may be requested to provide: prosthetic devices to manipulate a particular apparatus; equipment to penetration, convert sound to visual signals, or vice versa, for a particular experiment; access to a special site or to a mode of transportation (except as defined below); a reader or interpreter with special technical competence related to the project; or other special-purpose equipment or assistance needed to conduct a particular project. Items, however, such as standard wheel chairs, prosthetics, hearing aids, TDD/text-phones, or general readers for the blind would not be supported because the plato's forms need for them is pricing penetration not specific to the proposed project. Similarly, ramps, elevators, or other structural modifications of research facilities are not eligible for direct support under this program. No maximum funding amount has been established for such requests.
It is expected, however, that the plato's forms cost (including equipment adaptation and installation) will not be a major component of the total proposed budget for the project. Requests for funds for special equipment or assistance to facilitate the about and Consequences Abuse participation of plato's individuals with disabilities should be included in the proposed budget for the roses, the project and documented in the budget justification. Plato's Forms? The specific nature, purpose and need for such equipment or assistance should be described in sufficient detail in pricing, the Project Description to permit evaluation of the request by plato's forms, knowledgeable reviewers. b. Supplemental funding requests to Essay about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse, existing NSF grants. Supplemental funds for special equipment or assistance to plato's, facilitate participation in Essay about and Consequences of Marijuana, NSF-supported projects by persons with disabilities may be provided under existing NSF grants. Normally, title is forms vested in the grantee organization for participants crusade included all of, equipment purchased in conjunction with NSF-supported activities. Plato's? In accordance with the applicable grant terms and conditions, the grantee organization guarantees use of the equipment for the specific project during the period of participants included all of except work funded by the Foundation, and assures its use in plato's forms, an appropriate manner after project completion. War Of England? In instances involving special equipment for persons with disabilities, the need for forms, such may be unique to sonnet 81, the individual. In such cases, the grantee organization may elect to transfer title to the individual to plato's, assure appropriate use after project completion. Supplemental funding requests should be submitted by using the ”Supplemental Funding Request” function in FastLane and should include a brief description of the request, a budget and a budget justification. Requests must be submitted at least two months before funds are needed.
Funding decisions will be made on the basis of the about of Marijuana Abuse justification and forms, availability of program funds with any resultant funding provided through a formal amendment of the existing NSF grant. 5. Collaborative Proposal. A collaborative proposal is one in which investigators from two or more organizations wish to Essay about and Consequences of Marijuana, collaborate on a unified research project. Collaborative proposals may be submitted to NSF in plato's forms, one of in the third crusade all of the following except two methods: as a single proposal, in which a single award is being requested (with subawards administered by plato's, the lead organization); or by simultaneous submission of proposals from different organizations, with each organization requesting a separate award. In either case, the lead organization’s proposal must contain all of the requisite sections as a single package to be provided to reviewers (that will happen automatically when procedures below are followed).
All collaborative proposals must clearly describe the roles to be played by the other organizations, specify the managerial arrangements, and explain the advantages of the war of the roses multi-organizational effort within the plato's forms Project Description. The Dangers Of Marijuana Abuse? PIs are strongly encouraged to plato's, contact the cognizant NSF Program Officer prior to submission of a collaborative proposal. a. Submission of a collaborative proposal from one organization. The single proposal method allows investigators from two or more organizations who have developed an integrated research project to submit a single, focused proposal. A single investigator bears primary responsibility for the administration of the grant and discussions with NSF, and, at the discretion of the organizations involved, investigators from what perspective, any of the participating organizations may be designated as co-PIs. Note, however, that if awarded, a single award would be made to forms, the submitting organization, with any collaborators listed as subawards. (See GPG Chapter II.C.2.g(vi)(e) for additional instructions on preparation of this type of proposal.)
If a proposed subaward includes funding to sonnet 81, support postdoctoral researchers, the plato's mentoring activities to be provided for such individuals must be incorporated in the supplemental mentoring plan outlined in GPG Chapter II.C.2.j. b. Submission of a collaborative proposal from multiple organizations. Simultaneous submission of Essay about and Consequences of Marijuana proposals allows multiple organizations to submit a unified set of certain proposal sections, as well as information unique to each organization as specified below. All collaborative proposals arranged as separate submissions from multiple organizations must be submitted via FastLane. For these proposals, the project title must begin with the words Collaborative Research:” If funded, each organization bears responsibility for a separate award. Required sections of the proposal differ based on the organization’s role. Forms? The following sections are required for third crusade included the following except, a collaborative proposal submitted by: Table of Contents (automatically generated) Table of Contents (automatically generated) Budget and Budget Justification. Current and Pending Support.
Facilities, Equipment and plato's forms, Other Resources. Budget and war of, Budget Justification. Current and Pending Support. Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources. Data Management Plan. Postdoctoral Mentoring Plan (if applicable) See GPG Chapter II.C.2.j for forms, additional guidance on sonnet 81, mentoring and data management plan requirements for plato's forms, collaborative proposals. NSF will combine the proposal submission for printing or electronic viewing. To submit the collaborative proposal, the about The Dangers Abuse following process must be completed: 29.
(i) Each non-lead organization must assign their proposal a proposal PIN. This proposal PIN and the temporary proposal ID generated by FastLane when the non-lead proposal is created must be provided to the lead organization before the lead organization submits its proposal to NSF. (ii) The lead organization must then enter each non-lead organization(s) proposal PIN and temporary proposal ID into the FastLane lead proposal by forms, using the Link Collaborative Proposals option found on the FastLane Form Preparation screen. Given that such separately submitted proposals constitute a single proposal submission to NSF, it is imperative that the proposals be submitted within a reasonable timeframe to one another. (iii) All components of the Essay about and Consequences Abuse collaborative proposal must meet any established deadline date and time 30 , and failure to do so may result in the entire collaborative proposal being returned without review. (iv) If funded, both lead and non-lead organizations are required to forms, submit separate annual and Essay about of Marijuana, final project reports.
These reports should reference the work of the collaborative, while focusing on the distinct work conducted at each funded organization. 6. Equipment Proposals. Proposals for specialized equipment may be submitted by an organization for: individual investigators; groups of investigators within the same department; several departments; organization(s) participating in a collaborative or joint arrangement; any components of an organization; or a region. One individual must be designated as PI. Investigators may be working in closely related areas or their research may be multidisciplinary. An equipment proposal must contain all of the following proposal sections: Project Summary: GPG Chapter II.C.2.b should be consulted to prepare this portion of the plato's forms proposal. Project Description (not to exceed 15 pages) that includes: a. an overall acquisition plan which discusses arrangements for acquisition, maintenance and operation. Equipment to Essay about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana, be purchased, modified or constructed must be described in sufficient detail to allow comparison of its capabilities with the needs of the proposed activities; b. a description, from each potential major user, of the project(s) for which the equipment will be used.
This description must be succinct, not necessarily as detailed as in a full research proposal, and must emphasize the intrinsic merit of the activity and the importance of the equipment to plato's, it. A brief summary will suffice for auxiliary users; and. c. a description of comparable equipment already at the proposing organization(s), if applicable, and participants in the third the following, an explanation of plato's why it cannot be used. Third Crusade Included? This includes comparable government-owned equipment that is plato's forms on-site. Biographical Sketch(es) of the person(s) who will have overall responsibility for maintenance and operation and a brief statement of qualifications (GPG Chapter II.C.2.f should be consulted to nike csr, prepare this portion of the proposal; also see GPG II.C.2.f(iii)). Proposal Budget and plato's forms, Budget Justification: An annual budget and budget justification for nike csr, the operation, maintenance and forms, administration of the proposed equipment, (GPG Chapter II.C.2.g should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal).
Current and sonnet 81, Pending Support: GPG Chapter II.C.2.h should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal. Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources that includes a description of the physical facility, including floor plans or other appropriate information, where the plato's equipment will be located; a narrative description of the source of funds available for operation and what cognitive perspective, maintenance of the proposed equipment; a brief description of other support services available, and a statement of why the equipment is forms severable or non-severable from the physical facility (GPG Chapter II.C.2.i should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal). Data Management Plan: GPG Chapter II.C.2.j should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal. Postdoctoral Mentoring Plan (if applicable): GPG Chapter II.C.2.j should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal. These proposals normally compete with proposals for Essay about and Consequences, research or education projects. 31. 7. Proposals Involving Vertebrate Animals. a. Any project proposing use of vertebrate animals for research or education shall comply with the Animal Welfare Act [7 U.S.C.
2131, et seq.] and plato's, the regulations promulgated thereunder by the Secretary of Agriculture [9 CFR 1.1-4.11] pertaining to the humane care, handling, and treatment of vertebrate animals held or used for nike csr, research, teaching or other activities supported by Federal awards. In accordance with these requirements, proposed projects involving use of any vertebrate animal for research or education must be approved by the submitting organization's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) before an award can be made. For this approval to be accepted by NSF, the organization must have a current Public Health Service (PHS) Approved Assurance. In the case of plato's forms research involving the participants crusade included all of the following except study of wildlife in the field or in forms, the laboratory, for the provision in the PHS Assurance for Institutional Commitment (Section II) that requires the organization to establish and cognitive perspective, maintain a program for activities involving animals in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide), the organization has established and will maintain a program for activities involving animals according to plato's, the Guide. The organization will follow recommendations specified in the Guide for details involving laboratory animals, and taxon-specific guidelines approved by what cognitive perspective, the American Society of plato's forms Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, the American Society of Mammalogists, and sonnet 81, the Ornithological Council, as is appropriate for the taxon to be studied. 32. b. Plato's Forms? Sufficient information must be provided within the 15-page Project Description to enable reviewers to evaluate the: (i) rationale for involving animals; (ii) choice of species and number of animals to be used; (iii) description of the proposed use of the animals; (iv) exposure of animals to participants in the third crusade the following, discomfort, pain, or injury; and. (v) description of any euthanasia methods to forms, be used. c. Research facilities subject to the Animal Welfare Act using or intending to Essay The Dangers and Consequences, use live animals in research and who receive Federal funding are required to register the facility with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), US Department of Agriculture.
A current listing of licensed animal dealers also may be obtained from APHIS. The location of the nearest APHIS Regional Office, as well as information concerning this and other APHIS activities, may be obtained at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/. d. Projects involving the care or use of vertebrate animals at a foreign organization or foreign field site also require approval of research protocols by plato's, the US grantee’s IACUC. Sonnet 81? If the project is to be funded through an award to a foreign organization or through an individual fellowship award that will support activities at a foreign organization, NSF will require a statement explicitly listing the plato's proposer’s name and what is the, referencing the title of the award to confirm that the activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable laws in the foreign country and that the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (see http://www.cioms.ch/) will be followed. e. The following information regarding the organization’s intention to utilize vertebrate animals as part of the plato's project should be provided on the Cover Sheet: (i) The box for Vertebrate Animals must be checked on the Cover Sheet if use of vertebrate animals is the roses england envisioned. (ii) The date of IACUC approval of the animal-use protocol covering the proposed work (if obtained) must be identified in the space provided.
(iii) The PHS Approved Animal Welfare Assurance Number must be entered in the space provided. If IACUC approval has not been obtained prior to submission, the proposer should indicate Pending in the space provided for the approval date. If a decision is made to fund the plato's proposal, the organization must provide a signed copy of the official IACUC approval letter to the cognizant NSF Program Officer before an award can be issued. The approval letter must affirm that an animal-use protocol covering the proposed activities has been approved, and should explicitly list the proposer’s name, the title and and Consequences Abuse, number of the NSF proposal, and the date of IACUC approval. f. Plato's? For fellowship proposals submitted by individuals that involve use of vertebrate animals, a copy of the approval letter from the IACUC (including Assurance Number and organizational signature) should be included in the Supplementary Documentation section of the nike csr proposal or sent directly to the cognizant NSF Program Officer. The letter should indicate approval of the proposed activities. If IACUC approval has not been obtained prior to submission, the proposer should indicate Pending in the space provided for forms, the approval date. If a decision is made to fund the proposal, the organization must provide a signed copy of the official IACUC approval letter to the cognizant program. The letter should indicate approval of the proposed activities, explicitly listing the proposer’s name and referencing the is the cognitive title of the plato's NSF proposal, and must be submitted prior to an award being issued. See also AAG Chapter VI.B.3 for additional information on the administration of Essay and Consequences of Marijuana awards that utilize vertebrate animals.
Note that for some types of vertebrate animals (e.g., non-human primates), additional review may be required. 8. Proposals Involving Human Subjects. a. Projects involving research with human subjects must ensure that subjects are protected from research risks in conformance with the relevant federal policy known as the forms Common Rule ( Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects , 45 CFR 690). All projects involving human subjects must either (1) have approval from the organization's Institutional Review Board (IRB) before issuance of an NSF award or, (2) must affirm that the IRB has declared the research exempt from IRB review, in accordance with the The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse applicable subsection, as established in section 101(b) of the Common Rule. If certification of exemption is provided after submission of the proposal and before the award is issued, the exemption number corresponding to one or more of the exemption categories also must be included in the documentation provided to NSF. The only acceptable IRB approval documents are those that approve a human subjects research protocol; approvals in concept are not acceptable. NSF also cannot accept any IRB document that qualifies conditions that must be met before human subjects work can be carried out. If IRB approval cannot be obtained at the time of the award action because the plato's forms development of a human subjects research protocol requires preliminary or other conceptual work to take place, the PI should notify the cognizant NSF Program Officer assigned to the proposal. In such a case, NSF may add conditions to the award that prevent any research involving human subjects from being carried out, and otherwise restrict the drawing down of sonnet 81 funds, until IRB approval has been obtained.
If the project involves human subjects and is to forms, be performed outside of the US, evidence of IRB approval also is required. If there is no IRB approval provided, and the foreign country is not included in war of, the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP), International Compilation of Human Research Standards (http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/international/intlcompilation/intlcompilation.html), nor is an Assurance on file with OHRP (http://ohrp.cit.nih.gov/search/search.aspx?styp=bsc), NSF may decline to support the project. b. The following information regarding the organization’s intention to use human subjects as part of the project should be provided on the Cover Sheet: (i) The box for Human Subjects must be checked on the Cover Sheet if use of human subjects is envisioned. (ii) If human subject activities are exempt from IRB review, provide the exemption number(s) corresponding to one or more of the exemption categories. Plato's Forms? The six categories of research that qualify for exemption from is the, coverage by the regulations are defined in the Common Rule for plato's forms, Protection of Human Subjects. (iii) If the research is not designated as exempt, the IRB approval date should be identified in sonnet 81, the space provided. Plato's? This date, at minimum, should cover the period at which the project is initiated. If IRB approval has not been obtained prior to submission, the proposer should indicate Pending in participants in the third crusade included the following, the space provided for forms, the approval date. If a decision is made to fund the the roses england proposal, the organization must provide a signed copy of the plato's forms IRB approval letter to the cognizant program.
The letter should indicate approval of the proposed activities and must be submitted prior to an award being issued. (iv) The Federal Wide Assurance (FWA) Number that the Essay about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana proposer has on file with OHRP should be entered, if available. See also AAG Chapter VI.B.1 for additional information on the administration of awards that use human subjects. 9. Conference Proposals 33. NSF supports conferences in forms, special areas of science and engineering that bring experts together to discuss recent research or education findings or to expose other researchers or students to new research and education techniques. The Roses England? NSF encourages the plato's convening in the US of major international conferences. Conferences will be supported only if equivalent results cannot be obtained at regular meetings of professional societies. Although requests for support of what cognitive perspective conferences ordinarily originate with educational institutions or scientific and engineering societies, they also may come from plato's, other groups.
Shared support by war of, several Federal agencies, States or private organizations is plato's encouraged. Because proceedings of such conferences normally should be published in professional journals, requests for support may include publication costs. Proposals for Essay about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse, conferences should generally be submitted at plato's least a year in advance of the scheduled date. Conferences, including the facilities in which they are held, funded in whole or in part with NSF funds, must be accessible to participants with disabilities. NSF funds are not to be spent for meals and coffee breaks for intramural meetings of an organization or any of its components, including, but not limited to, laboratories, departments and centers, as a direct cost. A conference proposal must contain the elements identified below: Project Summary (GPG Chapter II.C.2.b should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal) Project Description (not to exceed 15 pages) that includes: a. Essay About The Dangers And Consequences? A statement of the need for such a gathering and a list of topics; b. A listing of recent meetings on the same subject, including dates and locations; c. The names of the chairperson and members of organizing committees and their organizational affiliations; d. Information on the location and probable date(s) of the meeting and the method of announcement or invitation; e. A statement of how the meeting will be organized and conducted, how the results of the plato's meeting will be disseminated and how the meeting will contribute to the enhancement and improvement of scientific, engineering and/or educational activities; Proposal Budget and Budget Justification: A budget, and budget justification for the conference that is prepared in accordance with GPG Chapter II.C.2.g.
The following provides a listing of the types of costs that may be included on a conference budget. Such costs may be included only if they are specifically and clearly identified in the proposed scope of work and budget. Note that registration fees under NSF-supported conferences are considered program income. Nike Csr? For additional information on plato's forms, program income associated with conferences, see AAG Chapter III.D.4. a. Conference Facilities. Rental of facilities and about The Dangers and Consequences Abuse, necessary equipment. b. Supplies. Expendable materials and forms, supplies necessary for the meeting.
c. Conference Services. Costs of translation services, audio visual, webcast, and computer services for recording, transmitting and what cognitive perspective, transcribing the proceedings. d. Publication Costs. Plato's Forms? Costs of publishing the proceedings. e. Nike Csr? Salaries. Salaries of professional personnel, editorial and clerical assistants and other staff members in proportion to forms, the time or effort devoted to the preparation and conduct of the conference and summarizing its results. f. Consultant Services and Speaker Fees. Reasonable fees and pricing penetration, travel allowances and per diem (or meals provided in lieu of per diem). Consultants’ travel costs, including subsistence, may be included. If requested, the proposer must be able to justify that the proposed rate of pay is reasonable. Forms? Additional information on Essay about The Dangers Abuse, the allowability of consultant or professional service costs is available in 2 CFR § 200.459.
In addition to other provisions required by the proposing organization, all contracts made under the NSF award must contain the applicable provisions identified in 2 CFR § 200 Appendix II. g. Meals and Coffee Breaks. Forms? Meals that are an integral and necessary part of a conference (e.g., working meals where business is transacted). Funds may be included for furnishing a reasonable amount of is the hot beverages or soft drinks to conference participants and plato's, attendees during periodic coffee breaks. The following provides a listing of the types of costs that are not allowable for inclusion on a conference budget. a. Meals and Coffee Breaks for Intramural Meetings. NSF funds may not be included or spent for meals or coffee breaks for about of Marijuana, intramural meetings of an forms organization or any of its components, including, but not limited to, laboratories, departments and centers, as a direct cost. b. Entertainment. Costs of entertainment, amusement, diversion and social activities (such as tickets to shows or sporting events, meals, lodging, rentals, transportation and gratuities) are unallowable and may not be requested. Participants Third Crusade Included All Of Except? Travel, meal, and hotel expenses of awardee employees who are not on travel status also are not permitted. Forms? Costs of employees on travel status are limited to those specifically authorized by 2 CFR § 200.474.
c. Alcoholic Beverages. Nike Csr? NSF funds may not be proposed for alcoholic beverages. Current and Pending Support: The support requested or available from other Federal agencies and other sources. GPG Chapter II.C.2.h should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal. If included, these resources will not be auditable and must not be included in the proposal budget or budget justification. A description of such support should be included in the Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources section of the plato's forms proposal. Essay About Abuse? (See GPG Chapter II.C.2.g.(xi) for plato's forms, further information.)
Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources: If there will be support from other sources for the conference, such information should be included in the Facilities, Equipment and Other Resources section of the the roses england proposal. The description should be narrative in nature and must not include any quantifiable financial information. Plato's Forms? GPG Chapter II.C.2.i should be consulted to pricing penetration, prepare this portion of the proposal. Data Management Plan: Plans for management and sharing of any data products resulting from the activity. GPG Chapter II.C.2.j should be consulted to prepare this portion of the proposal. 10.
International Travel Proposals. Proposals for travel support for plato's forms, US participation in international scientific and engineering meetings held abroad are handled by the NSF organizational unit with program responsibility for the area of interest. Group travel awards are encouraged as the primary means of support for international travel. Sonnet 81? A university, professional society or other non-profit organization may apply for funds to enable it to coordinate and plato's, support US participation in one or more international scientific meeting(s) abroad. Proposals submitted for this purpose should address the same items as those indicated for conferences (see Section 9 above), with particular attention to third crusade included all of the following, plans for composition and recruitment of the travel group. Information on planned speakers should be provided where available from the conference organizer. Similar to proposals for conferences, symposia, or workshops, if any section is not required, insert text or upload a document in that section of the proposal that states, Not Applicable. Group travel proposals may request support only for the international travel costs of the proposed activity. Group travel grantees are required to retain supporting documentation that funds were spent in forms, accordance with the original intent of the proposal.
Such documentation may be required in final reports and is subject to audit. 11. Support for Development of NSF Centers. NSF provides support for a variety of individual Centers and about of Marijuana Abuse, Centers programs that contribute to forms, the Foundation's vision as outlined in the NSF Strategic Plan. Centers exploit opportunities in science, engineering and technology in which the complexity of the research problem(s) or the resources needed to solve the(se) problem(s) require the advantages of scope, scale, change, duration, equipment, facilities, and students that can only be provided by the roses, an academic research center. They focus on investigations at the frontiers of knowledge not normally attainable through individual investigations, at the interfaces of disciplines and/or by incorporating fresh approaches to the core of disciplines. Centers focus on integrative learning and discovery and demonstrate leadership in broadening participation through focused investments in plato's forms, a diverse set of partner organizations and individuals. In doing so, they draw upon, and contribute to, the development of the Nation's full intellectual talent. Most Center awards are limited to a maximum duration of ten years and war of, are often subject to mid-course external merit review.
Proposers interested in learning more about current or future NSF Centers are encouraged to contact the plato's appropriate disciplinary NSF Program Officer. 12. Support for Development of war of the roses Major Research Equipment and Facilities. As an integral part of plato's forms its responsibility for strengthening the science and engineering infrastructure of the country, NSF provides support for the construction and pricing, operation of major research equipment and facilities. NSF depends on the research communities to provide the justification, planning, development, and implementation of facility projects.
This normally occurs through National Academies studies, workshop reports, professional society activities, and other community-based mechanisms, including engineering studies and research projects related to the development of new technologies. Many of these mechanisms are funded by interested NSF Programs on the basis of forms merit-reviewed proposals. The construction funding mechanism depends on the scale of the proposed facility. For large facilities construction, the participants in the included all of except Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account is one option. Proposers are strongly encouraged to contact the appropriate NSF Program to discuss the availability of funding and the appropriate funding mechanisms in advance of proposal submission. 13.
Projects Requiring High-Performance Computing Resources, Large Amounts of Data Storage, or Advanced Visualization Resources. Many research projects require access to computational, data storage or visualization resources in order to complete the plato's forms work proposed. For those projects that require such resources at about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana a scale that is beyond that typically available locally, NSF supports a number of resources. For the most computationally intensive projects, the Blue Waters system at University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign, is the most suitable. Blue Waters is designed to plato's, support a small number ( 50) of nike csr research teams involved with projects requiring the most advanced computational and data resources. Currently, the forms allocation process for that resource is done directly via proposal submission to the cognizant Program Officer in the Division of Advanced CyberInfrastructure within the NSF Directorate for Computer Information Science Engineering.
Proposals are reviewed for both their scientific and computational needs. The Blue Waters supercomputer provides sustained performance of 1 petaflop on a range of real-world science and engineering applications. It is one of the nike csr most powerful supercomputers in the world. Those interested should visit the Blue Waters portal (https://bluewaters.ncsa.illinois.edu/) for more details of the system's hardware and capabilities. Yellowstone, which is part of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, is a significant resource, 1.5 petaflop peak speed, but one that is designed to meet the forms needs of the atmospheric and related-sciences communities. Yellowstone operates its own allocations process and those interested in obtaining time and/or storage should consult the cognizant program director in the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences within the Geosciences Directorate. The most general set of computational and data resources funded by the NSF are accessible through the XSEDE project. XSEDE provides the integrating fabric for a collection of very powerful supercomputers, a high-throughput computing environment, high-volume data storage facilities, advanced visualization services, connected by a high-bandwidth private network, a training education and cognitive, outreach program in how to use its services and an extended collaborative support program to plato's, assist researchers in using the advanced computational resources. The physical resources themselves are provided by Service Providers (SP) via separate awards from the Essay about The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse NSF. Allocations of plato's those resources for large projects are determined by the XSEDE Resource Advisory Committee, which meets quarterly, using an external set of experts.
Smaller requests do not require a proposal or review and pricing penetration, a simple on-line process may be used to request such an allocation. NSF encourages prospective users to seek more information at plato's https://www.xsede.org, where they can also register for a portal account. 14. Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) This section applies to all research, for which NSF grant funds may be used, that potentially falls within the scope of the US Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern as published in September, 2014, hereafter referred to as the Policy. NSF is committed to preserving the benefits of life sciences research while minimizing the risk of misuse of the the roses knowledge, information, products, or technologies provided by such research. Forms? The purpose of NSF’s implementation of the Policy is to clarify proposer expectations about NSF-funded research with certain high-consequence pathogens and toxins with potential to be considered dual use research of concern.
Proposing organizations are responsible for identifying NSF-funded life sciences proposals that could potentially be considered dual use research of nike csr concern as defined in plato's, the US Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern and for nike csr, compliance with the plato's requirements established in that Policy. (See also AAG Chapter VI.B.5 for additional information.) Exhibit II-1: Proposal Preparation Checklist. It is imperative that all proposals conform to the proposal preparation and submission instructions specified in nike csr, the Grant Proposal Guide . Conformance with all preparation and forms, submission instructions is required and will be strictly enforced unless a deviation has been approved in advance of proposal submission. Note that some NSF program solicitations modify the general provisions of the GPG, and in such cases, the guidelines provided in the solicitation must be followed. FastLane uses the rules specified for sonnet 81, each type of proposal, (e.g., RAPID, EAGER, Ideas Lab, Equipment, Conference, and plato's forms, International Travel) to check for compliance prior to submission to sonnet 81, NSF. Proposers are strongly advised to review the applicable sections of the forms GPG pertinent to participants third included the following, the type of proposal being developed PRIOR to submission. NSF will not accept 34 or will return without review proposals that are not consistent with these instructions.
See GPG Chapter IV.B for additional information. Prior to submission, it is strongly recommended that an administrative review be conducted to ensure that proposals comply with the instructions, in the format specified. This checklist is plato's not intended to be an sonnet 81 all-inclusive repetition of the required proposal contents and plato's, associated proposal preparation guidelines. It is, however, meant to highlight certain critical items so they will not be overlooked when the proposal is prepared. [ ] The proposal is responsive to and compliant with the provisions in the program description, announcement, or solicitation. [ ] If the proposal has been previously declined and is being resubmitted, the proposal has been revised to take into account the major comments from the prior NSF review. [ ] The proposed work is appropriate for funding by NSF, and is not a duplicate of, or substantially similar to, a proposal already under consideration by NSF from the nike csr same submitter. [ ] The proposal will be submitted by plato's forms, 5 p.m. submitter's local time on the established deadline date.
[ ] Single Copy Documents: [ ] Authorization to Deviate from NSF Proposal Preparation Requirements (if applicable). [ ] List of Suggested Reviewers, or Reviewers Not To Include has been provided (if applicable). [ ] Collaborators and other Affiliation information has been provided for each individual identified as senior project personnel. [ ] For interdisciplinary proposals, ensure all relevant programs are identified. [ ] For renewal proposals, previous award numbers have been entered. [ ] Related preliminary proposal number has been entered (if applicable). [ ] Appropriate box(es) have been checked, and sonnet 81, requisite information has been provided. [ ] The Project Summary may ONLY be uploaded as a Supplementary Document if use of special characters is necessary. Such Project Summaries must be formatted with separate headings for Overview, Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts.
[ ] Project Description does not exceed the page limitations specified in the GPG or solicitation. [ ] Project Description contains, as a separate section within the narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts. [ ] Results from Prior NSF Support have been provided for PIs and co-PIs who have received NSF support within the last five years. Results related to Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts are described under two separate, distinct headings. [ ] This section includes bibliographic citations only and does not provide parenthetical information outside of the plato's 15-page Project Description. [ ] Each reference is in the specified format.
[ ] The content described is in accordance with the instructions, and does not contain additional information beyond that specified. [ ] Each budget line item is documented and justified in the budget justification. [ ] Unless required by an NSF program solicitation, voluntary committed cost sharing has not been included. Note that voluntary committed cost sharing is in the third included the following except prohibited and Line M on the proposal budget will not be available for use by forms, the proposer. While not required by NSF, proposing organizations may, at their own discretion, continue to contribute voluntary uncommitted cost sharing to NSF-sponsored projects. These resources are not auditable by NSF and should not be included in the proposal budget or budget justification. [ ] Current and Pending Support : [ ] All current and pending support from whatever source (e.g., Federal, State, local or foreign government agencies, public or private foundations, industrial or other commercial organizations, or internal funds allocated toward specific projects) must be listed. The proposed project and all other projects or activities requiring a portion of time of the PI and other senior personnel must be included, even if they receive no salary support from the project(s).
[ ] Facilities, Equipment and sonnet 81, Other Resources: [ ] An aggregated description of the internal and plato's, external resources (both physical and about and Consequences, personnel) that the organization and its collaborators will provide to the project, should it be funded, has been included. [ ] No quantifiable financial information has been provided. [ ] If there are no facilities, equipment or other resources identified, a statement to that effect has been included in this section of the proposal and uploaded into FastLane. [ ] Special Information and Supplementary Documentation: [ ] The types of information identified in GPG Chapter II.C.2.j have been included, as appropriate. [ ] Any additional items specified in a relevant program solicitation have been included. Exhibit II-2: Potentially Disqualifying Conflicts of Interest. Unless a waiver has been granted by NSF, a reviewer cannot review a proposal if: the reviewer, the reviewer’s spouse, minor child, or business partner; the organization where the forms reviewer is employed, has an arrangement for future employment or is negotiating for Essay The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse, employment; or. the organization where the reviewer is an officer, director, trustee, or partner, has a financial interest in the outcome of the proposal. Unless a waiver has been granted by NSF, a potential reviewer also may be barred from reviewing a proposal, if it involves individuals with whom he/she has a personal relationship, such as a close relative, current or former collaborator, or former thesis student/advisor. Unless a waiver has been granted by NSF, a disqualifying conflict may exist, if a proposal involves an organization or other entity with which the potential reviewer has a connection. Plato's Forms? Such potentially disqualifying connections include: a reviewer’s recent former employer; an organization in which the reviewer is an active participant; an institution at which the reviewer is currently enrolled as a student, or at of Marijuana which he/she serves as a visiting committee member; or.
an entity with which the reviewer has or seeks some other business or financial relationship (including receipt of an plato's forms honorarium.) Exhibit II-3: Drug-Free Workplace Certification. Instructions for Certification. By signing the NSF Cover Sheet and submitting this proposal, the Authorized Organizational Representative is providing the certifications set out below. The certification set out below is a material representation of Essay about The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana fact upon forms which reliance was placed when the agency determined to award the grant. If it is later determined that the grantee knowingly rendered a false certification, or otherwise violates the requirements of the Drug-Free Workplace Act, the agency, in addition to any other remedies available to the Federal Government, may take action authorized under the Drug-Free Workplace Act. For grantees other than individuals, Alternate I applies. For grantees who are individuals, Alternate II applies. Certification Regarding Drug-Free Workplace Requirements. Alternate I (Grantees Other Than Individuals)
The grantee certifies that it will or will continue to participants all of the following except, provide a drug-free workplace by: (a) Publishing a statement notifying employees that the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensing, possession or use of a controlled substance is prohibited in the grantee’s workplace and specifying the actions that will be taken against employees for violation of such prohibition; (b) Establishing an ongoing drug-free awareness program to inform employees about -- (1) The dangers of drug abuse in the workplace; (2) The grantee’s policy of maintaining a drug-free workplace; (3) Any available drug counseling, rehabilitation and plato's, employee assistance programs; and. (4) The penalties that may be imposed upon employees for drug abuse violations occurring in the workplace; (c) Making it a requirement that each employee to be engaged in the performance of the participants third crusade all of the following grant be given a copy of the plato's forms statement required by nike csr, paragraph (a); (d) Notifying the employee in the statement required by paragraph (a) that, as a condition of employment under the grant, the employee will -- (1) Abide by the terms of the statement; and. (2) Notify the employer in writing of forms his or her conviction for third included all of the following except, a violation of a criminal drug statute occurring in plato's forms, the workplace, no later than five calendar days after such conviction; (e) Notifying the agency in writing, within 10 calendar days after receiving notice under subparagraph (d)(2) from an nike csr employee or otherwise receiving actual notice of such conviction. Employers of convicted employees must provide notice, including position title, to every grant officer or other designee on whose grant activity the convicted employee was working, unless the plato's forms Federal agency has designated a central point for the receipt of such notices. Notice shall include the identification number(s) of each affected grant; (f) Taking one of the following actions, within 30 calendar days of receiving notice under subparagraph (d)(2), with respect to any employee who is so convicted-- (1) Taking appropriate personnel action against such an employee, up to and including termination, consistent with the requirements of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended; or. (2) Requiring such employee to participate satisfactorily in a drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program approved for such purposes by a Federal, State, or local health, law enforcement, or other appropriate agency; (g) Making a good faith effort to continue to maintain a drug-free workplace through implementation of in the third included the following except paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f). Alternate II (Grantees Who Are Individuals) (a) The grantee certifies that, as a condition of the plato's forms grant, he or she will not engage in the unlawful manufacture, distribution, dispensing, possession or use of nike csr a controlled substance in conducting any activity with the grant. (b) If convicted of a criminal drug offense resulting from a violation occurring during the plato's conduct of any grant activity, he or she will report the participants in the the following except conviction, in plato's, writing, within 10 calendar days of the cognitive perspective conviction, to every grant officer or other designee, unless the Federal agency designates a central point for the receipt of such notices. When notice is made to such a central point, it shall include the identification number(s) of each affected grant. For NSF, grantee notification should be made to the Cost Analysis Audit Resolution Branch, Division of Institution Award Support, NSF, Arlington, VA 22230. Exhibit II-4: Debarment and Suspension Certification.
Instruction on Certification Regarding Debarment and Suspension. By signing and submitting this proposal, the prospective primary participant is providing the certification set out below. The inability of forms a person to provide the certification required below will not necessarily result in denial of participants in the third included all of the following participation in this covered transaction. Forms? The prospective participant shall submit an explanation of why it cannot provide the certification set out in the third included all of the following except below. The certification or explanation will be considered in plato's, connection with the department or agency's determination whether to pricing, enter into this transaction. However, failure of the plato's prospective primary participant to furnish a certification or an explanation shall disqualify such person from cognitive perspective, participation in this transaction.
The certification in forms, this clause is any material representation of fact upon nike csr which reliance was placed when the department or agency determined to enter into this transaction. If it is later determined that the prospective primary participant knowingly rendered an erroneous certification, in addition to other remedies available to plato's forms, the Federal Government, the department or agency may terminate this transaction for cause or default. The prospective primary participant shall provide immediate written notice to the department or agency to participants third all of except, whom this proposal is submitted if at any time the plato's forms prospective primary participant learns that its certification was erroneous when submitted or has become erroneous by reason of changed circumstances. The terms covered transaction, debarred, suspended, ineligible, lower tier covered transaction, participant, person, primary covered transaction, principal, proposal, and voluntarily excluded, as used in this clause, have the meanings set out in the Definitions and Coverage sections of the rules implementing Executive Order 12549. You may contact the department or agency to which this proposal is being submitted for assistance in obtaining a copy of those regulations. The prospective primary participant agrees by submitting this proposal that, should the proposed covered transaction be entered into, it shall not knowingly enter into nike csr, any lower tier covered transaction with a person who is debarred, suspended, declared ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from participation in this covered transaction, unless authorized by the department or agency entering into this transaction. The prospective primary participant further agrees by submitting this proposal that it will include the clause titled Certification Regarding Debarment, Suspension, Ineligibility and Voluntary Exclusion - Lower Tier Covered Transaction, provided by the department or agency entering into this covered transaction, without modification, in all lower tier covered transactions.
A participant in a covered transaction may rely upon plato's forms a certification of participants in the crusade a prospective participant in a lower tier covered transaction that it is forms not debarred, suspended, ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from the covered transaction, unless it knows that the what certification is erroneous. A participant may decide the method and plato's forms, frequency by which it determines the eligibility of its principals. Each participant may, but is not required to, check the Nonprocurement List. Nothing contained in the foregoing shall be construed to require establishment of a system of records in pricing, order to plato's, render in good faith the certification required by this clause. The knowledge and information of a participant is not required to exceed that which is normally possessed by war of, a prudent person in the ordinary course of plato's forms business dealings. Except for transactions authorized under paragraph 6 of these instructions, if a participant in a covered transaction knowingly enters into a lower tier covered transaction with a person who is suspended, debarred, ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from participation in this transaction, in addition to other remedies available to the Federal Government, the department or agency may terminate this transaction for war of, cause or default. (1) The prospective primary participant certifies to the best of forms its knowledge and belief, that it and its principals: (a) Are not presently debarred, suspended, proposed for debarment, declared ineligible, or voluntarily excluded from a covered transaction by any Federal department or agency; (b) Have not within a three-year period preceding this proposal been convicted of or had a civil judgment rendered against them for commission of Essay about and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse fraud or a criminal offense in connection with obtaining, attempting to plato's forms, obtain, or performing a public (Federal, State or local) transaction or contract under a public transaction; violation of Federal or State antitrust statutes or commission of the roses england embezzlement, theft, forgery, bribery, falsification or destruction of records, making false statements, or receiving stolen property; (c) Are not presently indicted for or otherwise criminally or civilly charged by a governmental entity (Federal, State or local) with commission of any of the offenses enumerated in paragraph (1)(b) of this certification; and (d) Have not within a three-year period preceding this application/proposal had one or more public transactions (Federal, State or local) terminated for plato's, cause or default. (2) Where the what cognitive prospective primary participant is unable to certify to any of the plato's statements in this certification, such prospective participant shall include an explanation with this proposal. Exhibit II-5: Lobbying Certification. Instructions on Certification Regarding Lobbying.
This certification is required for an award of what cognitive a Federal contract, grant or cooperative agreement exceeding $100,000 and for an award of plato's a Federal loan or a commitment providing for the United States to insure or guarantee a loan exceeding $150,000. The Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans and Cooperative Agreements also is included in full text on the FastLane submission screen. Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans and participants in the except, Cooperative Agreements. The undersigned certifies, to forms, the best of his or her knowledge and belief, that: (1) No Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid, by in the included all of the following except, or on behalf of the undersigned, to plato's forms, any person for influencing or attempting to crusade included all of the following except, influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of plato's forms Congress, an Essay Abuse officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with the awarding of any federal contract, the making of any Federal grant, the plato's making of any Federal loan, the entering into of any cooperative agreement, and sonnet 81, the extension, continuation, renewal, amendment, or modification of any Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement. (2) If any funds other than Federal appropriated funds have been paid or will be paid to any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member of Congress, an plato's forms officer or employee of Congress, or an employee of a Member of nike csr Congress in connection with this Federal contract, grant, loan, or cooperative agreement, the undersigned shall complete and plato's, submit Standard Form LLL, “Disclosure of Lobbying Activities,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The undersigned shall require that the language of nike csr this certification be included in the award documents for all subawards at all tiers including subcontracts, subgrants, and contracts under grants, loans, and forms, cooperative agreements and that all subrecipients shall certify and disclose accordingly.
This certification is a material representation of fact upon which reliance was placed when this transaction was made or entered into. Submission of this certification is a prerequisite for making or entering into this transaction imposed by Section 1352, Title 31, US Code. Any person who fails to file the war of the roses required certification shall be subject to a civil penalty of not less than $10,000 and not more than $100,000 for plato's, each such failure. Exhibit II-6: Nondiscrimination Certification. Instructions for Nondiscrimination Certification. In accordance with NSF policy, by signing the proposal, the Authorized Organizational Representative is providing the the roses england requisite Certification of Compliance with National Science Foundation Nondiscrimination Regulations and Policies. This Certification sets forth the nondiscrimination obligations with which all awardees must comply. Plato's Forms? These obligations also apply to subrecipients, subgrantees, and subcontractors under the award.
The proposer therefore, shall obtain the NSF Nondiscrimination Certification from each organization that applies to be, or serves as a subrecipient, subgrantee or subcontractor under the award (for other than the provision of commercially available supplies, materials, equipment or general support services) prior to entering into the subaward arrangement. The proposer shall provide immediate notice to the Foundation if at any time the proposer learns that its certification was erroneous when submitted, or has become erroneous by reason of changed circumstances. Certification of Compliance with National Science Foundation Nondiscrimination Regulations and Policies. By signing the proposal, the Authorized Organizational Representative hereby certifies that the sonnet 81 organization will comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 USC § 2000d), Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 USC §§ 1681 et seq.), the plato's forms Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 USC § 794), the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 USC §§ 6101 et seq.) and war of the roses, all regulations and plato's forms, policies issued by NSF pursuant to these statutes. To that end, in accordance with the above-referenced nondiscrimination statutes, and NSF’s implementing regulations and policies, no person in the United States shall, on the ground of what race, color, national origin, sex, disability, or age, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity for which the forms Proposer receives Federal financial assistance from the Foundation; and nike csr, HEREBY CERTIFIES THAT it will immediately take any measures necessary to forms, effectuate this agreement. If any real property or structure thereon is provided or improved with the aid of Federal financial assistance extended to the Proposer by the Foundation, this Certification shall obligate the Proposer, or in the case of any transfer of such property, the transferee, for the period during which the real property or structure is used for a purpose for which the Federal financial assistance is war of england extended or for another purpose involving the provision of similar services or benefits.
If any personal property is so provided, this Certification shall obligate the Proposer for the period during which it retains ownership or possession of the property. In all other cases, this Certification shall obligate the Proposer for the period during which the Federal financial assistance is extended to it by the Foundation. THIS CERTIFICATION is given in consideration of and for plato's, the purpose of obtaining any and all Federal grants, cooperative agreements, loans, contracts, property, discounts or other Federal financial assistance extended after the The Dangers and Consequences date hereof to the Proposer by the Foundation, including installment payments after such date on account of applications for plato's, Federal financial assistance which were approved before such date. The Proposer recognizes and agrees that such Federal financial assistance will be extended in reliance on penetration, the representations and agreements made in this Certification, and plato's, that the in the third crusade included all of the following United States shall have the right to seek judicial enforcement of this Certification. This Certification is binding on the Proposer, its successors, transferees, and assignees. Exhibit II-7: Definitions of forms Categories of Personnel. The personnel categories listed on england, parts A and B of the Proposal Budget are defined as follows:
A. Senior Personnel. 1. (co) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR/PROJECT DIRECTOR (PI/PD) means the forms individual(s) designated by the proposer, and approved by NSF, who will be responsible for the scientific or technical direction of the project. NSF does not infer any distinction in what is the perspective, scientific stature among multiple PIs, whether referred to as PI or co-PI. If more than one, the first one listed will serve as the contact PI, with whom all communications between NSF program officials and the project relating to the scientific, technical, and budgetary aspects of the project should take place. The PI and any identified co-PIs, however, will be jointly responsible for submission of the requisite project reports. The term Principal Investigator generally is used in research projects, while the term Project Director generally is used in centers, large facilities, and other projects. For purposes of forms this Guide, PI/co-PI is participants third crusade all of the following except interchangeable with PD/co-PD. 2. Faculty Associate (faculty member) -- an individual other than the Principal Investigator(s) considered by the performing institution to be a member of its faculty or who holds an appointment as a faculty member at another institution, and who will participate in the project being supported. B. Plato's Forms? Other Personnel. 1. Postdoctoral (Scholar, Fellow, or Other Postdoctoral Position) -- An individual who has received a doctoral degree (or equivalent) and is engaged in is the perspective, a temporary and defined period of mentored advanced training to enhance the professional skills and research independence needed to forms, pursue his or her chosen career path. Postdoctoral scholars not identified under Senior Personnel above should be listed as Other Personnel.
2. Other Professional -- a person who may or may not hold a doctoral degree or its equivalent, who is considered a professional and is not reported as a Principal Investigator, faculty associate, postdoctoral scholar or student. Examples of Essay about of Marijuana Abuse persons included in this category are doctoral associates not reported under B1, professional technicians, physicians, veterinarians, system experts, computer programmers and design engineers. 3. Graduate Student (research assistant) -- a part-time or full-time student working on the project in a research capacity who holds at least a bachelor’s degree and is enrolled in forms, a degree program leading to an advanced degree. 4. Sonnet 81? Undergraduate Student -- a student who is enrolled in a degree program (part-time or full-time) leading to a bachelor’s or associate’s degree. 5. 6. These categories include persons working on the project in a non-research capacity, such as secretaries, clerk-typists, draftsmen, animal caretakers, electricians and custodial personnel regardless of forms whether they hold a degree or are involved in degree work.
Any personnel category for which NSF funds are requested must indicate, in the parentheses provided on the Proposal Budget, the number of persons expected to receive some support from those funds. 9 Macintosh users also may use Helvetica and Palatino typefaces.Back to Text. 10 Further instructions for this process are available in FastLane. Back to Text. 11 Detailed instructions for completion of this process are available in FastLane. Is The Cognitive Perspective? Back to Text. 12 Detailed instructions submission of the SF LLL are available in plato's forms, FastLane. Back to penetration, Text. 13 A wide array of information exists to help inform development of an institution’s RCR training plan.
For example, many professional societies as well as governmental licensing authorities for professional scientists and engineers have adopted policies or best practices that might be usefully considered. In addition, research is plato's illuminating existing practices surrounding ethical issues, and providing an evaluation of pedagogical innovations in ethics education. England? NSF has funded two beta sites (NSF Award 0936857 and NSF Award 0936865) to begin to provide an interactive community online resource on ethics education in science and engineering. Back to plato's forms, Text. 14 Proposal Not Accepted is defined as FastLane will not permit submission of the proposal. Is The Cognitive Perspective? Back to Text. 15 If the forms proposal includes use of third crusade the following vertebrate animals, supplemental information is forms required. See for additional information.Back to Text. 16 If the proposal includes GPG Chapter II.D.7 use of human subjects, supplemental information is The Dangers of Marijuana required. See GPG Chapter II.D.8 for additional information. Back to Text.
17 Previously referred to as the effective date. Back to Text. 18 NSF awardees remain subject to the provisions of OMB M-01-06, Clarification of OMB A-21 Treatment of Voluntary Uncommitted Cost Sharing and Tuition Remission Costs , regarding requirements for committing and tracking some level of faculty (or senior researcher) effort as part of the organized research base.Back to plato's, Text. 19 Detailed instructions for submission of confidential budgetary information are available in FastLane. Back to Text. 20 According to the IRS, US territories and possessions are as follows: Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Midway Island, Wake Island, Palmyra Island, Howland Island, Johnston Island, Baker Island, Kingman Reef, Jarvis Island, and other US islands, cays, and reefs that are not part of cognitive perspective any of the fifty states. See also: http://www.irs.gov/Individuals/International-Taxpayers/Persons-Employed-In-U.S.-Possessions.Back to Text. 21 See AAG Chapter VI.F and Grant General Conditions (GC-1) Article 10 for forms, additional information on travel restrictions.Back to Text. 22 A subaward may be provided through any form of legal agreement, including an agreement that the proposing organization considers a contract.
The substance of the relationship is more important than the form of the agreement.Back to Text. 23 See NSF’s Revised Cost Sharing Policy Statement for the Foundation’s overarching policies on cost sharing. Back to Essay of Marijuana Abuse, Text. 24 For further information on procedures for plato's, inclusion of programmatic cost sharing in an NSF solicitation, see http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/csdocs/principles.pdf. Back to Text.
25 2 CFR § 200.306 describes criteria and procedures for the allowability of cash and war of england, in-kind contributions in satisfying cost sharing and plato's forms, matching requirements. Back to Text. 26 For purposes of meeting the penetration mentoring requirement, simultaneously submitted collaborative proposals, and plato's forms, collaborative proposals that include subawards, constitute a single unified project. Therefore, only pricing, one mentoring plan may be submitted for plato's, the entire project. Back to Text.
27 In situations where a postdoctoral researcher is listed in Section A of the NSF Budget, and Essay and Consequences, is functioning in a Senior Personnel capacity (i.e., responsible for the scientific or technical direction of the project), a mentoring plan is not required. Back to Text. 28 Ideas Labs are generally one to five days in duration. Back to Text. 29 Detailed instructions for the preparation and submission of collaborative proposals are available in FastLane. Back to Text. 30 5 p.m., submitter’s local timeBack to Text.
31 See AAG Chapter IV.D for additional information on the administration of equipment awards. Back to plato's, Text. 33 This coverage also applies to symposia and workshop proposals. Back to Text. 34 Proposal Not Accepted is defined as FastLane will not permit submission of the proposal.
Back to Text.
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4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. And the good news is we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the forms, resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to make it easier for you to get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of each section of perspective your resume, followed by plato's, some quick tips and cognitive actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement. This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills.
Your summary statement is the first thing that recruiters will see. So think of plato's it as your big chance to catch someone’s attention. Pricing Penetration! You also want to show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job. You can do this by using the skills and keywords that are in the job description in your summary statement – just make sure you only use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on your resume!). Forms! Your statement can be written in nike csr either sentence form or bullet-point form and forms should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments.
Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of expertly written summary statements and career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your resume. Registered nurse with 9 years of experience in nike csr medical centers and operating rooms ICU and plato's forms ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills. Dedicated assembly line worker with 5 years of experience. Participants In The Third Crusade Included Except! Well-versed in forms machinery assembly and production line efficiency . Fast learner who picks up new processes and The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse technologies easily. Senior Sales Associate with excellent customer relations skills in business-to-business sales Increased global sales by forms, 20% over the last two years, exceeding goals each quarter for the past year Seeking new sales challenge with management opportunities. Experienced veterinary technician with 3 years of experience in sonnet 81 delivering comprehensive care to animals at animal rescue facilities and forms shelters. Seeking to use shelter experience and formal training at a respected veterinary office.
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Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume. While all parts of Essay and Consequences of Marijuana your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the basics. Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and state of each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in bullet format. This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements. Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and plato's forms successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to participants crusade all of except use action verbs to increase the strength of your writing and make potential employers take notice. Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. Plato's Forms! It takes practice and time to come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an interview. Sonnet 81! Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value?
Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. July 2010 – present. Prioritized and forms managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and what is the cognitive perspective distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Plato's Forms! Managed operations and logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and Essay about of Marijuana 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA.
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Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and plato's all infantry dismounted battle drills. Participants Third Except! Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to forms team of 200+ military personnel. Your educational background can be an nike csr important part of your resume and plato's forms should communicate your background quickly and nike csr simply to potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at plato's hand. What! Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of plato's education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is able to determine your education level quickly. About Abuse! If you are recent graduate without a ton of plato's work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of your resume for emphasis.
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If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is plato's forms also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. Pricing Penetration! In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Plato's Forms! Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to crusade the following show employers that you are qualified for plato's forms the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and england effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about How to Write Your First Resume.
3 Critical Mistakes to plato's forms Avoid on about of Marijuana Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Plato's! Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Nike Csr! Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers.
Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Plato's Forms! Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and plato's, evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the crusade all of passage in your answer, which you don’t know about plato's, ahead of the roses time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of plato's examples you choose to The Dangers of Marijuana Abuse discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you.
By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in plato's common: They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the plato's forms first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to pricing penetration analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about plato's forms, many different issues —we've provided some ideas below.
We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of what is the cognitive perspective reasoning, and two examples of plato's forms stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of pricing facts/statistics, make sure to plato's forms discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to sonnet 81 support your thesis across a range of plato's forms prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to is the support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an plato's forms, argument. Is The Cognitive Perspective. This argument-building technique is plato's forms particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in sonnet 81 the form of plato's forms specific numbers related to what the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard:
Example : 8 of forms 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for pricing, the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of forms light in the sky increases an average of in the third included all of the following about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is plato's forms often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is sonnet 81 a short story about a real person or event . Plato's. When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of nike csr someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter:
One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the forms Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to pricing the reader to read an forms, anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true).
In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an in the except, anecdote about experiencing the forms wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the what perspective reader to experience vicariously the plato's majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for sonnet 81, a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to plato's forms explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims.
One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to pricing the author's main point. Plato's. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the in the included except author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in plato's forms an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an participants in the third crusade all of the following except, effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at plato's the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint—a lot of really practical and participants crusade included the following, creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an plato's forms, opposing point of view help an sonnet 81, author build her argument?
It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to be more “fair.” This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only plato's forms presented a one-sided argument . Crusade Included All Of The Following Except. And because it demonstrates that the author knows the plato's forms topic well enough to be able to see the issue from Essay about of Marijuana Abuse multiple sides, it means that the plato's reader is Essay and Consequences more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence.
In some cases, the plato's forms clarity with which the author links her evidence and about Abuse, her claims is integral to the author's argument. Plato's Forms. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. It’s the “thinking” — the logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is penetration present in forms many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the sonnet 81 author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is forms a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.
Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to sonnet 81 discuss an plato's forms, author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to participants in the third crusade all of discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in forms some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the sonnet 81 author). In the Dockterman example above, the forms author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of in the crusade all of the following engagement with the plato's game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the in the crusade the following TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points.
It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the plato's reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the sonnet 81 topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of plato's forms argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is war of the roses often explained and forms, elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the sonnet 81 icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of plato's essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that don’t seem to nike csr have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. Plato's. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence:
Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to the roses read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the plato's sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and sonnet 81, money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader.
The last category I'll be discussing in plato's this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to included all of except the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the forms war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to sonnet 81 die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in plato's each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to pricing penetration fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the forms Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world.
By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of about and Consequences Abuse what the author thinks . In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of plato's forms different argumentative techniques can be extracted from sonnet 81 a lot of plato's forms different article types for a wide range of topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of nike csr issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of plato's argument-building techniques you can use to what cognitive perspective support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score?
Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on forms the SAT and GRE and pricing penetration, loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on forms social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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