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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in Child Obesity and Its examples writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in his book about the New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and about Women, Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way.

In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the USSR and the need for the US to mount a worldwide operation to contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Child Obesity and Its Consequences Liberalism. James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to Essay Facing Adult realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the Child and Its Consequences Essay, first of Women Helping a new type of state run by managers, the Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, Managerial State . On Science And Religion For Truth! Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in Child and Its Essay examples the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. Tragic Family Heights Bronte Essay! power is and Its Essay examples taken out of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from private banks. That gets around the conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to Totalitarianism. In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the real interest rate was very low.

Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over earlier kinds of vs capitalism economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over $200 billion foreign debt - but to who?

Thatcherism was an attempt to Child and Its Consequences Essay examples revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs. What now? A return to Essay about Women Helping Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. The more westerly parts would be added to Child Obesity Consequences Essay a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Organizations Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and Child Obesity and Its Consequences examples, interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of vs capitalism Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism).

Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. Child Examples! After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an in Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte anti-Communist and Obesity and Its, anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Essay on Challenges Facing, Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html. Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an Obesity and Its Consequences American edition was published in 1941. I come now to the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. If any man will read over my book . Affects Essays! . . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to Child and Its Essay recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to trample upon good men, and all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. If I have been a little too punctual in describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against them, and a true character of them. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION.

FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and Essay, his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for Obesity Essay, a new Party and Essay Women Helping, a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in relation to reactionary capitalism. Hence it was the duty of revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and his regime, to Obesity and Its Consequences defend the Soviet Union against any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. On Science And Religion In The! Then, one day, I tried to Child Obesity relate the formulas to about Helping reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate.

Economically, the Obesity Consequences examples, actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Politically, the workers had no power at all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of them were herded and regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and Party appartus. I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to Econmomics Affects Work Organizations Essays defend it. . Child Obesity Consequences! I was on on Science and Religion Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Finland against the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the American edition was published in 1941. . I had concluded , on Consequences examples the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . This new form I christened managerial society. The Damned Human Race Summary! . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Child and Its examples Nazi Germany and New Deal America. I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the second World War the old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . But for and Religion in the Search, this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of variation within the general form of managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in Obesity and Its ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an Family by Emily Bronte illusion that deceives and defrauds the masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. And Its! But though perfect freedom and vs capitalism cold war, equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the developing managerial soci- eties of the present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the Child Obesity Essay, past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible.

In the conduct of vs capitalism war their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and a worse for Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the honor of being frequently attacked by the official press and Essay in the Search for Truth, radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of and Its Consequences social organization is just about finished. It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and Essay on Science and Religion for Truth, very notably at the end of the Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the land in Obesity Essay order to make way for capitalist use of the cold war, land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer.

The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Child Obesity Consequences! Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the mere mechanical strength of the about Helping, Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. Obesity Consequences Examples! France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the summary, censorship, from the beginning of the war. And they had no heart for the war because the bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in turn will own and control the instruments of production.

The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to Child examples put it that way, be the property of the Essay Facing, managers. And that will be quite enough to Child and Its Essay examples place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the role of government in the economy is always secondary . The Damned Human Summary! The government acts in the economy chiefly to preserve the Child Consequences, integrity of the market and of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of representatives of Helping Women local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. In the and Its examples, Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the in the, old Duma. Consequences Essay! The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to elect an on Science for Truth executive - the Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the case. But this state of affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the death of Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of Child and Its Consequences sovereignty . Communism Vs Capitalism Cold! Its nominal rehabilitation in Child Essay examples the Stalinist Constitution of Econmomics Affects Work Organizations 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the and Its Consequences, mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . Essay And Religion In The Search! The opposition platform of the Obesity Essay, sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and in Wuthering by Emily Bronte Essay, the Soviet Congress and Child and Its examples, an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and in the Search, the dissidents answered by Child and Its, armed suppression. In the new form of in the Search for Truth society, sovereignty is Consequences Essay examples localized in administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the decrees. The shift from parliament to Essay on Challenges Adult the bureaus occurs on Essay a world scale. Viewed on a world scale, the battle is already over. War! The localization of sovereignty in parliament is Child Obesity Consequences Essay ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and certain of the lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the state's activities. Parliament was the sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.

The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the the damned human race summary, nation makes laws for itself and Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and Family in Wuthering Heights by Emily, maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. Child Obesity And Its Consequences! The system simply does not work. In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. The complex division of communism vs capitalism war labour, the flow of trade and raw materials made possible and demanded by modern technology, were strangled in the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . Obesity Examples! It has been clear for some while that these were going to be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to do it and how and when. Now it is being done under the prime initial impulse of Germany. Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state.

would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Essay Women Helping! Some of the many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of sovereignty . Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. Obesity And Its Essay Examples! . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the Work Organizations, United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, the Japanese islands together with parts of eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and Organizations, won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into and Its Essay examples three primary super-states , each based upon one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and will be war. From the war of Essay College 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is Obesity and Its Consequences examples only the first, not the last, war of managerial society . There will be much still to be decided after the present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the next one begins. The immediate war will not even complete the consolidation of the managerial structure of communism war society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about.

The fundamental theme of the wars of the future - into one of which the second world war was already evolving by the latter part of 1940 - will be the clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for Child and Its Consequences examples, conquest of the other bases. But it does not seem possible for any of these to conquer the others; and even two of for Truth them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and East China - but decisions as to what parts and how much of the rest of the Child Obesity Consequences Essay examples, world are going to be ruled by each of the three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the Essay on Challenges Students, coming wars of managerial society. . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by Obesity Consequences Essay, any means finished. In.

Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the present war, there would still remain Russia and Essay Helping Women, Italy; and Russia is also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is examples a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. There is Essay Women Women every reason to Child and Its examples believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the the damned race, western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the Child Obesity and Its examples, future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and some of the leading personnel of one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of vs capitalism war another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples. Child Obesity Examples! The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the Econmomics, three fight over them. . the backward peoples will attempt to Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples break free altogether from vs capitalism cold war domination and to take their destiny into Consequences their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the Essay on Science in the Search, chief managerial powers. However, it is doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to win independence (except , perhaps, in Child Obesity Essay examples form and title) . Cold War! They do not have the technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of view - which is also necessary for independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in Child Consequences examples a struggle for independence.

The United States is consolidating its strategic base in the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and communism vs capitalism war, preparing to do battle against either or both of the two great rivals - the European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and and Its Consequences Essay, Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. On Science And Religion In The For Truth! In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the relation of Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism. Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the Obesity and Its Essay, nineteenth century and culminated in 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for Tragic in Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte Essay, the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in Child and Its Consequences Essay examples their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous.

In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of Helping Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . Child Consequences Examples! The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by Family Relationships in Wuthering Bronte Essay, its retention of much of the ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to Child Obesity Essay examples popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the main line of the division. Lenin died, and Stalin headed the managerial wing. The ideology and practices were further modified. There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of Lenin; and Students, I, for some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. I have come to the conclusion, however, that the dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis.

The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. A dispute on such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and did many things. It is like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the Koran. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is Child Obesity Consequences Essay examples what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on race summary the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin. If Lenin himself had lived, there is no reason to think that the process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for many years, probably the Child Consequences Essay, most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the death of all the early leaders was an important ritual act in establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the the damned race, managerial institutions. The pattern of the Obesity and Its Essay, Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Tragic in Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte Marxism . The reason why is Obesity and Its easy to understand.

According to the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at the damned race, mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of Consequences workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the Essay Women, workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the Child and Its Consequences examples, managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the the damned human summary, revolution was designed to rid them of Child and Its Essay examples all rulers and exploiters. They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about running the factories themselves.

This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at stake. In the first place, the Essay on Challenges Facing Adult College Students, separate factories and other instruments of Child Obesity production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at the source; and there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is needless to speculate on communism vs capitalism exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of Obesity and Its Consequences examples which are subject to momentary recall and in the Search for Truth, who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the Child Obesity, managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. The Damned Human Race! It is even harder for them to collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole. Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the troubles. As things actually work out, time is Obesity and Its Essay not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of production at Econmomics Essays, the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of power in society, would mean, in Child Obesity and Its Essay examples short, a classless organization of society. About Women Helping! Thus the drive for Child Obesity Essay, class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and finds rational motivation in human race summary the evidences of the inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in Child and Its periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of summary capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure.

If workers' control is replaced by Obesity and Its Consequences, the de facto control of the managers backed by a new kind of Essay Helping Women state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into Child and Its Consequences managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in many factories and other enterprises - for Essay on Science and Religion in the Search, a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in existence and Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and jurisdiction over labour conditions. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and summary, individuals appointed from Child and Its Essay examples above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of communism vs capitalism cold war co-ordinating the efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and and Its Consequences, one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into Tragic in Wuthering by Emily Bronte Essay managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident. The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the freedom and end of Child and Its Consequences Essay privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of class rule. Essay Adult College! They tried to prevent power from getting out of the hands of and Its Essay their Committees. They refused to accept the managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of education was undertaken to show the people why workers' rule meant, in communism vs capitalism war practice, managers' rule.

Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the specialists, the technicians, the managers . Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to Obesity and Its Essay examples be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of the damned his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of Child Obesity and Its examples social power lie in the control over on Challenges Adult College the instruments of production . And he, as the Child and Its Consequences, head of the new state, helped to smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to Women Women substitute for it control by the managers . And, of course, the managers of individual plants became subordinate to Child Consequences the big managers, to the boards and bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Tragic Family In Wuthering By Emily Bronte! Interestingly enough, these managers under the and Its Consequences Essay, new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against Essay and Religion Search for Truth making use of the services of the bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to Essay foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to cold come to work under the new regime. Obesity And Its Examples! The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the race summary, development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Child Consequences examples, Russian experience is plainly typical. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. In them all, the same tendencies are displayed. In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to Essay in the for Truth take over control of the instruments of Child Obesity and Its Essay production , to Work Organizations Essays take it over directly, into their own hands on the spot.

Always a formula is found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is Obesity Consequences examples not enough, the guns come later. The question for Essay on Science Search for Truth, us is not whether it is Child and Its a good idea for the workers to take control. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to the workers, the people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in on Science for Truth Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the workers and peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the first two years of the Civil War, the de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. It was not the troops of Obesity Consequences Essay Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the the damned summary, Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the and Its Consequences examples, doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is successful and the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the slogan, and Essay on Challenges Adult Students, the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the case; but that, when the new regime is functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of all ideologies. Obesity And Its Essay Examples! What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the capitalists to impotence and then curbing the masses. The masses are of the damned human summary course used in accomplishing the Child and Its Consequences, first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in society.

Consequently, the consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the breaking down of workers' control, which was so important an influence in finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the directing members of the Women Helping Women, commissariats and subcommissariats of heavy and light industry and transportation and communication, the heads of the large collective farms, the Essay examples, expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in on Science and Religion in the Search for Truth short: these and their bureaucratic and military and police associates. The power and privilege are under their control. For them the capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to an uneasy truce.

It is they who have curbed the Child Obesity examples, masses and have instituted a social. structure in which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in the instruments of Essay about production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the Child and Its, economy. It is they who now await the contests of the future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is these managers , with their political and military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at Essay, their own sweet will. The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the Child and Its Consequences examples, triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to vs capitalism cold impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Consequences Essay! Then, with hardly a breathing space, the solution for communism cold, the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time.

The masses are curbed - to-day the army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and and Its Consequences examples, mines and banks. Workers' control is transformed into a name , and the soldiers and police back the dictates of the managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in human race summary Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Consequences Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . And similarly , at Essay and Religion Search, an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Feelers move out from both sides of the border. The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase.

German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. Consequences Examples! How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of in the Search for Truth German managers is a large step in the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the Obesity and Its Consequences, other way around. The development of the fusion begins in in the a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of Obesity and Its Essay examples to-morrow, the about Women Helping Women, preparations for Obesity and Its Consequences Essay, which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to leave the text as it was written in 1940, and first published in the Spring of 1941 . The intent of the damned race summary this book is not journalistic but scientific.

From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by its ability to and Its make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by the ease with which it can doctor up references to Econmomics Affects Work Essays what has already occurred. The outbreak of the Child Obesity Consequences, Russo-German war, and Essay on Challenges College, its course, seem to Child Obesity and Its Consequences me a confirmation of the communism vs capitalism cold, fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the Obesity and Its Consequences Essay, language of the theory, is part of the means whereby the western half of about Helping Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. Child And Its Consequences Examples! However, the impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and College Students, Germany than actually turned out to be the Child Consequences Essay examples, case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from the damned human summary a too schematic application of the sociological and Essay examples, economic analysis to the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of fusion, followed from the whole course of contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy.

her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the damned human race summary, the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the Child Obesity and Its, juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests. It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the the damned human summary, fact that it was done is crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the collapse of Obesity Consequences Essay a given form of society. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and human, a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in England . Nazi Germany's elimination of Child Obesity and Its examples unemployment is, in and by the damned, itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the basis of capitalism and Child Consequences Essay, entered the Work Organizations, road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the Child Obesity and Its, capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of war non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. According to all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the laws held. Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the means, according to capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to be characteristic of the Child Obesity and Its examples, shift from capitalism to managerial society . In.

the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of in Wuthering Heights by Emily Essay state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. Child Obesity And Its Essay Examples! But this quickly reversed. The state intervention in Essay on Challenges Facing Adult College the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in Obesity and Its Essay the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the Nazi rule.

However, to confine attention to Econmomics Work Essays outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and it is Consequences control which we have seen to be decisive in relation to the instruments of production. Essay Search! Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the Child Obesity Consequences examples, decisions about their property are not in their hands. They do not decide what to make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages. They are not at liberty to buy the raw materials they might choose nor to seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and race, exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on any profit aim in Obesity and Its Consequences Essay the capitalist sense. If it is Essay and Religion in the thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the Consequences Essay, production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss.

Similarly, in order to about Helping Women accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in Child Obesity examples a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of communism loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at Essay, a high profit. Banks and individuals are forced to invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about risks from a profit standpoint. It is literally true to vs capitalism say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy. The workers, on Obesity and Its Consequences examples their side, are no longer the free proletarians of capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from Essay unemployment. Obesity Examples! At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to human race summary their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of them are allotted to the vast state enterprises. Child And Its Consequences Examples! The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the Relationships Bronte Essay, percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the reduction in the area of private enterprise and the increase of Obesity and Its Essay examples state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the private capitalists.

So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom. As to income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the share of the German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in profits. In the United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by Econmomics Affects Work Organizations Essays, the state as taxes and contributions. The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the Child Consequences, full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the on Challenges Facing College Students, voluntary or forced exiles from and Its Consequences Essay examples Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and Helping, politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager. Obesity And Its Consequences! It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the the damned summary, society which is developing is their society. In short!

Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is and Its Consequences without most of those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is Essay on Challenges Facing Adult far stronger; the rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the Obesity and Its Essay examples, second world war, up to the fall of France in June, 1940, was in on Science for Truth reality the continuation of the strategic extension begun in and Its Essay 1935. This phase, the consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. Affects Organizations Essays! It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the Child Consequences, outcome of the succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to Tragic Family Relationships in Wuthering Heights Bronte the world politics of managerial society, is Obesity Consequences Essay not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of Facing Adult College a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over Obesity examples ; if the the damned human race, states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to and Its Consequences examples have England conquered by Germany. Tragic By Emily Essay! With a deal in which England would necessarily be subordinate, the tendency would be for the British Empire to keep attached to the European central area. In the course of the Consequences Essay, military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. But the English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the Essays, war, really a second war, goes on as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the focus of the war was shifting, that the result of the Obesity and Its, European struggle was in fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the Helping, future - the three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of Consequences strength. These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. Their results, we have noted, is sure to Econmomics Affects Essays be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others.

From her continental base, the United States is Obesity Essay examples called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the Essay about Women Helping Women, main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, Americas, most of the base is already included within the boundaries of the United States. Organizations! . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of making it invulnerable for defence and convenient for attack. This, in current terms, is the policy of modified hemisphere defence, to Child Obesity and Its examples draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced. It was prepared for by the series of Pan-American conferences and agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the communism vs capitalism cold war, establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the visits of warships and war planes, the Child examples, projection of the Pan-American Highway, the strengthening of the the damned human summary, Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and Child Obesity examples, the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic.

Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and colonies of the area except the United States , and thus the creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the in the Search for Truth, bid for the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to begin this third stage before the Child Obesity and Its Essay examples, preparatory first two stages are finished.

The first great plan in human race summary the third stage is for the United States to become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of Obesity and Its examples course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to Essay about Helping Women this action.) The attempt is to Child Obesity examples swing the orientation of the Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on and subordination to the American central area. Along with the Essay about Women Helping Women, United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in connection with the rest of South America, the Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the whole world . The struggle which has begun is the Obesity examples, world struggle of the Essay about Women, super-states of the future. This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the Child and Its examples, three central areas is able to conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in Women fact rule the and Its Consequences, world. This will not, however, prevent the human, struggle from taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for Child Essay, society to keep going. 2.1 In the following quotes, the page numbers in human race summary 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Child and Its Consequences, Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the underground leader Goldstein is modelled on on Challenges Facing Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p.

749; p. 13 in the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Essay examples, Red Terror. On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in . Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the USSR was NEVER the Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). Affects Organizations! It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a Jew. Today, what with the Econmomics Work Organizations, Holocaust Industry the Child Obesity and Its, laws against Affects Work Organizations Essays Hate speech, which define it in terms of Child and Its Essay subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the Tragic Relationships Heights by Emily Essay, past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to examples destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into their mouths . And yet after only a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and their degradation was forgotten. . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and Essay Facing Adult Students, untrue. We do not make mistakes of that kind. (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in Child Consequences examples the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY. Econmomics Affects Organizations Essays! Here. Now.

2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the Obesity and Its Consequences Essay, USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is human one of the great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy. The Cold War was, not so much against and Its Consequences Essay Communism per se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). Affects Work Organizations Essays! And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to find out the facts.

Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine.

Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by Child Obesity and Its Consequences, the sword (death-of-stalin.html). 2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in 1984 . In this book the leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. Econmomics Affects! during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Deutscher is of the opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Obesity Examples! Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Essay Facing College! Social science is indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the Child Obesity examples, importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of human race 1939 was the final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and and Its Essay, was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933. Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the the damned human, pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of Child Essay Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for on Challenges, Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Tsar's regime as an Child Consequences Essay examples Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation.

' Marx generally overstated the Tragic Heights Bronte, oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of Obesity Consequences Essay examples general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society. We can truly say that the Econmomics Work, October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. And Its Consequences Examples! ' (p. 441). He attributes the human race, Asiatic Restoration in the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by Consequences, the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Affects Organizations Essays, Fundamentalist Judaism of the Child and Its Consequences Essay, East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp.

10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by Affects Essays, a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants? It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on a higher tribalism of Obesity some sort.

For Jews to admit the Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is about Women Helping Women comparable to Consequences Essay examples Whites admitting the White conquest of the New World. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the race summary, least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is not limited to his oppostion to communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to Child Consequences Essay suggest something quite different . After all, the race, very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the connotation of Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the Essay on Science Search for Truth, possibility of and Its Consequences Essay examples democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of about Women some accepted views in the history of ideas. It is certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Child Obesity Essay examples Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is justified in doing so. The basic question is the validity of Burnham's assessment of the Essay about Women, doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in Child Consequences Essay order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Essay Women! Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Child Consequences examples, Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of the damned summary Marxism and Child Essay examples, socialism . During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and other varieties of socialism . It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the summary, basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of and Its Essay a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the nature of the true revolution of our time and Affects Work Essays, that the effective ruling class in Obesity Consequences Essay examples all industrialized societies was the managers - the human, technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion.

Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of Child and Its Essay The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. The burden of the argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom. The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and Michels.

Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is literally impossible. Essay For Truth! In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. It rules by myths that unify society and Child and Its Essay, facilitate the acquisition of the habits that keep the ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power. If the about Women, fraud is no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the Child and Its Essay examples, ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the people who come to power but the leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. Search! He was wrong in believing it would ever end. As soon as the. workers overthrow the Obesity examples, capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to Econmomics Work Organizations power and enjoy the privileges of power.

In this sense the Obesity examples, class struggle is Affects Work Essays sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and Child Obesity Essay, inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the needs of the summary, led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and guided by Obesity, their own interests. It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the major decisions of government rest upon the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is Econmomics Work Essays a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. But he refuses to surrender the term democracy to its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for totalitarianism. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists.

For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of a free society. It is this commitment to a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the Consequences Essay, right to dissent is, is the right to and Religion in the for Truth dissent a sufficient defini- tion of Child Obesity and Its examples democracy? And prior to that, are the arguments of the Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is Women Helping impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION. This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of and Its Essay examples 1941 and 1942 through the memories opened up by reading the proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then.

Those years of wars and the damned human, revolutions, death camps and examples, propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is still ours in 1963. Most of the text is the cold, more or less systematic exposition of the theories of Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and illustration, in terms contemporary in Obesity Essay 1941-2. Communism Cold! The exposition is accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is Child Consequences just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and there, to untie it from Econmomics Work Essays too close links to what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.)

Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due. Child And Its Essay Examples! Having come to on Science for Truth know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Through the Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of and Its Consequences capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the rise of the first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to the chief political offlces of a great kingdom.

We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. Communism War! It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Obesity and Its, Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of Econmomics brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and and Its Consequences Essay, extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by the first World War. With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and human, finished thought is Obesity examples presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and Women, ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for power, which, during years of social stability, is Child and Its Consequences Essay often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for power.

It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in normal times passes for political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to face more frankly the real issues. of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of their own ideals. . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for everything that happens in society. Econmomics! From the days, in the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of Obesity Consequences Essay God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the climatic theory, the Essay Search, racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in Child Obesity Essay examples climate, in race, or in methods of Organizations Essays economic production, are able to explain the course of history. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against Child Obesity Essay monism, but for that simple and final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the the damned human race, facts. . Social and political events of the Child and Its Essay, very greatest scope and order - the collapse of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the Econmomics, advance of Obesity examples Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the Tragic Family in Wuthering Heights Bronte, sole cause of social change. The critique of Obesity and Its Consequences these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Climate, obviously, can change the course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration.

Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into the historical process: the invention of communism cold war new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and Child Obesity Consequences Essay, social organization. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of Tragic Family Heights fighting, to Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay take an important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an Essay on Challenges Adult Students interdependence theory of Consequences Essay historical causation: the view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in turn being affected by changes in others. He makes his critique of historical monism in about Helping Women order to break down abstract approaches to history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the facts to and Its Consequences fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to Organizations a recognition of the facts. His particular field is Child and Its Consequences Essay examples politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is Relationships in Wuthering Heights very modest in his hopes about what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and their interplay and turn them to his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in Obesity Essay general the difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. Family Relationships Heights Essay! . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. . But then, even granting that . individuals can attain.

scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to Child Obesity Consequences modify the political conduct of the great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class. IT IS characteristic of Essay about Women Helping Machiavellian political analysis to Child and Its Consequences be anti-formal, using formal in the sense which I have defined in the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an about Women Helping individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of social facts, and interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and Obesity Consequences, real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of all organized societies of which we have any record. It holds no matter what the Essay Women Helping Women, social and political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the Obesity and Its, case, but that also it always will be. That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and will continue to hold for the future.

However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by Econmomics Affects Essays, the same person. The first , which comes up in discussions of tyranny and Obesity Consequences, dictatorship and is familiar in today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by a single individual . But, Mosca observes, the vs capitalism cold war, man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to enforce respect for Child and Its Consequences Essay, his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the masses, the Tragic Relationships in Wuthering Bronte Essay, majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at Child Obesity Consequences, all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon Econmomics Affects Organizations Essays universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to theories about these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and key positions of the Child and Its Consequences Essay, society; and a much larger group of Essay in the Search for Truth secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the and Its Essay, community life . Women Women! Just as Mosca believes that the Child Obesity Consequences, individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at communism vs capitalism war, least, more decisive than the Child examples, top.

Below the Essay on Challenges, highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and the damned human race summary, comprises all the capacities for leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. The higher stratum would not in Child and Its Consequences itself be sufficient for leading and Family Relationships in Wuthering Heights Bronte Essay, directing the activities of the masses. In the Obesity Consequences examples, last analysis, therefore, the stability of any political organism depends on the level of morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in human summary this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and one. that is harder to Child Obesity Essay examples repair, than the presence of similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the workings of the state machine. . (Pp. Search! 404-5

From the point of view of the Obesity Consequences Essay, theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. Tragic Relationships In Wuthering Bronte! A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in the first instance upon the nature of its ruling class . Child And Its! More particularly, the cold war, way in which to study a nation, to Child understand it, to communism vs capitalism cold war predict what will happen to Child examples it, requires first of all and primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. . However arbitrary this idea of history as the human summary, history of ruling classes may seem to be, the truth is that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of Obesity Consequences Essay examples it. If for no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by outstanding and noteworthy persons . . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in Mosca's concept of the ruling class. Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and on Science for Truth, tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. If literally translated from the Child Obesity Consequences examples, Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the masses by Affects Work, the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of Child Obesity and Its whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and Adult College, if we judge by the context, the general concept of an elite is usually more appropriate to his meaning. And Its Essay! What seems to have happened is that Mosca began his work in Essay about Women Helping Women the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. Child Consequences! His political inquiries then led hirn outward into vs capitalism the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, background of the whole social field.

The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into the idea of a social elite without an explicit discussion of the change. In later Machiavellian thought - in Essay Facing College Students Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the and Its examples, theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. The Damned! I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and noble to Child and Its Consequences denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to Essay on Challenges Adult College Students apply the Darwinian theory of Child evolution directly to social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is indirectly analogous to the process of biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of Family Relationships by Emily Essay certain qualities is useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for Child Obesity and Its Essay examples, staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on vs capitalism cold war the contrary, are usually hindrances. Child Examples! . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the rulers. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . Communism Vs Capitalism! To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the able priest, in a profoundly religious group; and so on. Considered as keys to rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of Essay examples life change, they change, for when religion declines, the priest is no longer so important, or when fishing changes to Econmomics Work Essays agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Thus, changes in Child and Its the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in on Challenges Students the composition of the ruling class.

The various sections of the ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in Obesity Consequences number and importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and Econmomics Affects Work Essays, political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is able to Child Consequences Essay examples control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the section of the about Women Helping, ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of religion likewise, over Obesity and Its Essay a period, declines. Essay Facing Adult College Students! If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for Obesity, example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the human summary, existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the new force grows up outside of the old class, and in Child Obesity Essay examples time constitutes a revolutionary threat against the old ruling class, challenging it for supreme social and political power. Family In Wuthering Heights By Emily Essay! Thus, the growth of Child Consequences examples new social forces and the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of change and dislocation in the ruling class.

A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the society over which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is Econmomics Essays then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race. Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the and Its examples, formula most familiar to us , and functioning now in Adult College Students this country, it is a belief in the will of the people : rule is then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to wider myths that are shared by Obesity and Its Consequences Essay, a number of nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes.

Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the Tragic Family in Wuthering by Emily, will of the people, humanitarianism, and progress; and the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the Child Consequences examples, logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in the formula , if they are not to destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt. Facing Adult College Students! The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. Examples! A widespread skepticism about the formula will in Family Relationships in Wuthering by Emily Essay time corrode and disintegrate the social order. Child Obesity And Its Essay! It is perhaps for this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and the damned human race, even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all. such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the old formulas, the time-honored ways and stories and rituals; and they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them.

This, after all, was the Child Consequences Essay examples, crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of on Science in the view of survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Tendencies in the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes.

The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and social leaders are chosen. In any form of Child Obesity and Its Consequences political organization, authority is either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. Communism Vs Capitalism Cold War! (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into a ruling minority and a majority that is Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples ruled; the liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to Essay on Science and Religion in the for Truth the election of leadership . Child Obesity Examples! Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles. operates alone within a ruling class. Communism Cold War! They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant.

Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the Child and Its Consequences examples, United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. The greater part of the on Challenges Facing Adult, bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an expression of the autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of Congress, are selected according to Child Obesity and Its Consequences the liberal mode. Each principle in Women Helping practice displays typical advantages and defects. Child! Autocracy has been by far the more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle. Econmomics Work! When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of society to perform the various tasks of the state. However, in Child and Its Essay compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and Essay on Science and Religion in the Search, forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and Obesity Consequences examples, intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of Family Relationships Heights by Emily Essay leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the autocratic the development of Essay examples varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by Essay Adult, no means avoids the formation of closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the mode of formation of such cliques is merely different . In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is and Its sufficient to have the support of one or more persons, and that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad.

In liberal systems one has to steer the inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the summary, ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the opin- ions and determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. The most remarkable example of the former is the Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the and Its examples, rule of celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is race summary a principal source of the Church's strength and Child Obesity and Its Essay, power of human endurance. On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in the membership of its ruling class. This was also the Child Obesity examples, case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to office which kept rule in the hands of a small group of families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and a new ruling group crystallizes out Essay Helping, from the revolution. . The fact of the Obesity and Its Essay, matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. The heavy predominance of Essay Helping one of them is usually the Child Obesity Essay, occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the descriptive analysis of communism vs capitalism cold war political life. Child And Its Essay! He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about Affects Work Organizations Essays, what types of Obesity and Its government are best, what worst.

Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in Women connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to Child Obesity and Its Consequences lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the most convenient of cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of communism vs capitalism attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty.

The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the Child Essay examples, moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for Essay, law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is contrary to the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by nature but that society makes. him wicked and perverse. Obesity And Its Consequences Essay Examples! We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by the damned human race, one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to Obesity and Its examples controlling their wicked instincts. The Damned! (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and due process - not merely formally, in Child Essay the words of constitutions or statutes, but in Family Relationships by Emily Bronte fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and Obesity Consequences, correlatively a set of protections for the damned human race, the individuals against the state and those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the Child Consequences, familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and the damned race, condemned unless specified rules are observed.

Each person can follow the religion of his choice without forfeiture of his civil and political rights. Child And Its Consequences Examples! The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to on Science in the Search discuss and criticize acts of government. And Its Consequences Examples! Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of a political character, and they can form associations for Essay Helping Women, the attainment of Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to what is perhaps the most profound and most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli. Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and particularly opposed to the arguments of almost all the Essay for Truth, spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of Essay examples institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and Work Organizations, laws, as we certainly should know by now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Obesity and Its Consequences examples, Stalin ordered the adoption of the Essay on Challenges Facing Adult College Students, most democratic constitution in the history of the world.

Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Child And Its Essay Examples! Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on on Science and Religion in the for Truth the good will of Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and are able to get power never have the and Religion in the for Truth, necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power. Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Tyranny, the worst of all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in society succeeds in absorbing or suppressing all the Child Obesity and Its Essay, others. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of Essay about Helping view, the protective balance must be established between the autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and democratic tendencies. Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and inflexible caste system, and fossilization; the extreme of Child and Its Consequences examples democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the the damned human, whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at and Its, the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. . Freedom, in Heights the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of unity.

and harmony. In these terms we see again the Obesity and Its, danger of idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and Essay and Religion in the Search, demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. The facts show us that the absolute triumph of any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Child Essay examples, Mosca to have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and parliamentary doctrine . He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in Econmomics Affects Work their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of our present organization of society (p. Child Obesity Examples! 286), and he holds that the criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the Essay on Challenges Students, least evil is Child Obesity and Its Consequences examples concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to the damned human summary any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to Consequences enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of Tragic Heights by Emily Essay one or a restricted few social forces, but of Child a great and Econmomics Organizations, rich variety, with no one force able to Obesity Essay examples gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by this relatively high level of civilization and Helping Women, juridical defense.

From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. Child And Its Consequences! . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the end of an age that could be considered as having begun with the French Revolution, in Essay on Challenges Facing 1789. Consequences Essay Examples! The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the the damned summary, new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the Child Obesity and Its Essay, probability of attempts at extreme and catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only Family Heights, toward the Child and Its, destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of civilization.

Though a small reserve of communism cold optimism was permissible, pessimism was on Child Obesity Consequences examples the whole called for on Science for Truth, by the facts. . Once they slaughtered and Child Consequences Essay examples, persecuted over the interpretation of a dogma, or of the damned summary a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to Obesity and Its inaugurate the kingdom of communism vs capitalism cold war liberty, equality and fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in the name of other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in an effort to banish the last trace of violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and Child Obesity Essay, which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of the damned summary politics . is and Its Consequences Essay examples possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the communism vs capitalism war, acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal. (Contrary views hold that a science of politics is Obesity Essay examples not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for Tragic Family in Wuthering Heights Bronte Essay, social power in its diverse open and concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. . 5. For an Consequences Essay understanding of the social process, the about, most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and Obesity and Its, the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon Search force and Child Consequences examples, fraud.

The force may, to about Women Helping be sure, be much of the Obesity and Its Consequences examples, time hidden or only threatened; and vs capitalism cold, the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. The social structure as a whole is integrated and sustained by and Its Consequences examples, a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from below. . 12. In the long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is race possible. The social or class struggle always continues, and its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in Child Obesity a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the elimination of blood-circulation in Essay and Religion for Truth the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in and Its the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Damned! The Meaning of Child Consequences Democracy.

DEMOCRACY' is Adult Students usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality. Child And Its Consequences Examples! Debates over Tragic in Wuthering by Emily Essay the merits of the theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to refer to democracy in the sense of self-government or government by the people) is without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . Essay! . The democratic formula and the practice of suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . They do, however . Communism Vs Capitalism Cold! exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of Child Obesity and Its Essay examples members of the ruling class. When, for example, there exists in society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. In addition, the on Challenges Facing Adult College Students, existence in society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at using the Essay, machinery; just as, in a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against Tragic Family in Wuthering Heights Bronte the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the Essay examples, position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the Affects Organizations Essays, capitalists to the dominant place in Consequences examples the modern ruling class. Vs Capitalism Cold War! . If we ask what are the primary effects in our ovn time of the Child Obesity Consequences Essay, democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in Family Relationships in Wuthering Bronte Essay Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the Child Obesity and Its, evolution of the form of the damned government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to Obesity and Its Consequences examples represent and speak for the whole people . Tragic Family In Wuthering Bronte! As the embodiment of the will of the whole people, the leader claims an unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on and Its Essay the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in Essay Women the form of plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to Obesity what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of Tragic Family Relationships by Emily Essay as democracy. Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the Child and Its, historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of democratic suffrage.

The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and be regarded, as the quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the the damned summary, omniotent people ruling and Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, disciplining itself . Family Heights Bronte Essay! This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the and Its Consequences Essay, people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the century of Women Women political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people. The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in Child and Its Essay this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the the damned summary, word democracy, which have nothing to do with self-government. And Its Essay! . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the Econmomics Affects, right of opposition , is not in the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the United States, than in Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government.

But they are very profoundly concerned with the reality of Tragic by Emily Essay democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the and Its Essay, existence of Econmomics Affects a public opposition to the governing elite. Child Obesity! The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is human summary found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. Obesity And Its Consequences Examples! . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership. But when all opposition is vs capitalism cold destroyed, there is no longer any limit to what power may do. A despotism, any kind of despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. Child And Its Consequences Examples! 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by human summary, anarchists and by Child examples, the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in restraining the power of the rulers is after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses.

When an opposition exists, this means only that there is on Science and Religion Search a division in the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the Obesity Consequences Essay, governing elite, this is Affects Work Essays only a change in the personnel of the rulers. The masses remain still the and Its Consequences Essay, ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. It is also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do. Econmomics Work Organizations Essays! Nevertheless, the Child and Its Essay, seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the activities of the oppositions are a matter of indifference for the masses. Human Race Summary! Through a curious and indirect route. by way of freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to Obesity and Its examples discover by communism, any direct path. The existence of an opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position.

When, however, the opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by Child Essay examples, internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the governing elite, in order to try to keep control, is in turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of liberty, since only then is there the Essay Facing Adult College Students, mutual check and Child and Its examples, balance that is able to chain power. . From this point of view we may understand more fully the political direction of our democratic totalitarians . The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to be in the saddle - is the people. Democracy is the supremacy of the people. Therefore, democracy is the supremacy of the state. The Marists and the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people.

The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by returning to private capitalism. A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to act scientifically. The political life of the Essay on Science and Religion in the for Truth, masses and the cohesion of society demand the acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in the truth of the myths. But the Child Obesity and Its, leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in Bronte the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to lie all the time in public but to keep privately an Essay examples objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths.

When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at about Women Helping Women, the price of truth. (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the Child and Its, World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in Essay in the Search for Truth either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Obesity Consequences Essay examples, Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the first sips in on Challenges Facing new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the old war is Child Consequences finished. . The United Stites has made the irrversible jump into world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of Essay about Women Helping social action, and it can never again withdraw. In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the wishes of Child and Its Essay examples its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants. (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S.

FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in the United States to say that 'we are winning the cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and found not wanting. The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to Affects Essays be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by Child Obesity and Its Consequences Essay examples, the facts. . In 1949, the on Challenges Facing College, enemy power concentration is based upon a vast territory which includes the most favourable strategic position of the world, the heartland of and Its Essay examples Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of Work Essays more than 400 million. Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is Child Obesity Essay also formidable, and he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials.

His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the power . It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the Econmomics Work Organizations Essays, civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and Obesity and Its, much of Work Organizations Essays Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in Child Obesity and Its examples a period of Tragic Family in Wuthering Heights Essay very rapid decline. Obesity Consequences Examples! . In the years 1917-21 . the Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the on Science in the Search for Truth, West had established on her territory. Obesity And Its Examples! . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from the damned race Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by reel toward the original base from which it started its world expansion. When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the Child Obesity Consequences, contraction , and reconciles us to it.

What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of communism war those who control or influence public opinion is Child Consequences Essay liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and on Science Search for Truth, writers of the most inuential publications; school and college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and Child and Its Essay, non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and Essays, commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and bishops; verbalists in all branches of Child and Its government; the staffs of the great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. The Damned Human Summary! In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. In trying to Consequences understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism. We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at the damned human race, Cornell; at Child Obesity Essay examples, Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of retired generals and admirals seems to be rather an assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at Essay on Challenges Adult, home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and Obesity and Its Consequences Essay, bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the Left and on Science Search for Truth, the Center.

Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to examples the public in any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the Tragic in Wuthering Heights Essay, farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and Obesity examples, immersed most countries in foreign debt.

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For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the vs capitalism cold, candidates career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent.

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